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Causeway

A causeway is a raised path, railway or road across an expanse of low ground, wetlands or water. It is different from a bridge in that it has little or no opening underneath. Instead, it consists of a crest with embankments on either side. It is typically made of compacted earth, sand and rocks. In most cases, causeways are made by humans to connect different dry land areas to each other. Such connections can also be made up of a combination of causeway and bridge segments. Sometimes, a causeway can serve several purposes simultaneously. In addition to the passage it provides, the bulk of its structure may be intended to function as a dam or dike.

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Trails and Greenways in Canada

Canada was founded along the many waterways utilized by Indigenous peoples, early explorers, fur traders and pioneers. As Canada became a more developed nation, the automobile and roads began to dominate the landscape. Trails were almost forgotten, except in parks and other protected areas. Today, however, Canadians are using trails in increasing numbers. Trails are either managed by organizations such as parks, municipalities and First Nations, or unmanaged. As of 2010, there were 278,576 km of managed trails in Canada. This distance is roughly the equivalent of traversing the country, from Cape Spear, Newfoundland and Labrador, to the Yukon-Alaska border, 50 times. The province with the largest managed trail network is Quebec. Just over 27 per cent of all managed Canadian trails (77,030 km) are found there.

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Wild Turkeys in Canada

The wild turkey (Meleaagris gallopavo) is a species of bird native to North America. There are six subspecies of M. gallopavo, two of which have populations in Canada: the Eastern wild turkey, M. gallopavo silvestris and Merriam’s wild turkey, M. gallopavo merriami. The Eastern wild turkey is native to southern Ontario and Quebec, while Merriam’s wild turkey was introduced to Manitoba in 1958 and to Alberta in 1962. In the 1960s, Merriam’s wild turkey naturally expanded their range from the northwestern United States into southern British Columbia. Today, Merriam’s wild turkey can also be found in Saskatchewan.

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Moose

Moose are the largest living member of the deer family (Cervidae). Four subspecies are found in Canada: the Alaska/Yukon moose (Alces alces gigas), the shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi), the western Canada moose (Alces alces andersoni) and the eastern Canada moose (Alces alces americana). They live in every province and territory except Prince Edward Island. Often considered a symbol of Canada, the moose is featured on Ontario’s provincial coat of arms.

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Green Party of Canada

The Green Party of Canada is a federal political party that advocates environmentalism as the key to a sustainable society. Annamie Paul was elected in 2020 to become the party’s leader, replacing Elizabeth May. Paul became the first Black Canadian and the first Jewish Canadian woman to permanently lead a federal political party. She resigned as leader after the party’s poor performance in the September 2021 federal election.

Two Green Party candidates were elected to the House of Commons in the 2021 election. (See Member of Parliament.)

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Montreal Biosphere

The Montreal Biosphere is a museum dedicated to the environment operated by the City of Montreal. Located in Parc Jean-Drapeau on Saint Helen’s Island, the Biosphere is one of five museums in the city that focus on the natural world. The museum is housed inside a geodesic dome designed by the famed American architect Buckminster Fuller. The dome originally served as the American Pavilion during Expo 67. The Montreal Biosphere is the only museum in Canada exclusively devoted to educating the public about environmental issues.

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Trans Canada Trail

The Trans Canada Trail is over 27,000 km of land and waterways connecting every Canadian province and territory. Construction began in 1992 as part of Canada's 125th birthday celebrations. It was completed 25 years later, in 2017, when Canada turned 150. In 2016, the trail’s name changed to “The Great Trail.” However, in June 2021, the name reverted back to the original.

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Alberta Clipper

An Alberta Clipper is a type of low-pressure weather system that forms in Alberta or nearby, on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. It is a fast-moving storm, hence the name “clipper,” which refers to 19th-century ships known for their speed. Depending on the province where the system approaches the Canada-United States border, sometimes it is called a Saskatchewan Screamer, Manitoba Mauler or Ontario Scary-o. It may also be called a Canadian Clipper or simply a Clipper. Such storms mostly occur in December and January but are common in the fall and spring, too. They form about 5–20 times per season.

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Blue Box

The blue box is a plastic bin used in curbside recycling programs. The bins are filled with materials — including paper, glass, cans and select plastics — which are then collected by waste management professionals. Resource Integration Systems, the sister organization of a countercultural non-profit, and Superior Sanitation pioneered the blue box system in Kitchener, Ontario, in 1981. By 1986, the program began to operate province-wide. Today, blue boxes continue to be used in Ontario, home to one of the world’s most comprehensive recycling programs. Blue boxes are also used in municipal recycling programs in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Quebec.

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Moss

Moss is a small terrestrial plant, usually less than 10 cm tall, that lacks true conducting tissues (xylem, phloem) and has a dominant gametophyte (sexual) generation. Mosses are the largest and most highly developed group of division Bryophyta (which also includes liverworts and hornworts). Bryophytes are sometimes known as the “amphibians of the plant world” because of their dependence on water for sexual reproduction. There are over 10,000 species of moss worldwide, of which about 1,250 are found in North America. Individual parts of Canada have fewer species (e.g., 466 species in Alberta, 445 in Newfoundland, 430 in Ontario). Mosses thrive in humid climates, and coastal parts of Canada have a greater diversity than the interior parts.

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Wood Frog

The wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) is medium-sized, forest-dwelling frog native to North America. It is found in every province and territory in Canada. With populations north of the Arctic Circle, the wood frog’s range extends farther north than any other North American amphibian.

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Lizard Species in Canada

Lizards are reptiles that belong to several suborders within the order Squamata (which also includes snakes). They are the most diverse group of living reptiles and are found on all continents except Antarctica. There are six species of lizard currently found in Canada. In addition, one species, the pygmy short-horned lizard, is extirpated. This means that, while it continues to live in other parts of its range, it is no longer found in Canada. Five of the six lizard species in Canada are native, while the sixth, the common wall lizard, is introduced from Europe.

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Regina Cyclone

The Regina Cyclone was an F4-scale tornado that struck Regina, Saskatchewan on 30 June 1912. It is generally considered the deadliest tornado in Canadian history. It killed 28 people, injured 300, and left about 2,500 temporarily homeless. The tornado also destroyed half the city’s businesses and 200 of its homes, causing at least $1.2 million in damage (roughly $30.5 million in today’s dollars). Rebuilding took two years, while paying off the rebuilding debt took a decade.

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Eastern Red-Backed Salamander

The Eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) is a small woodland salamander that is native to Eastern North America. In Canada, this species is found from Prince Edward Island to Northwestern Ontario. A similar species, the Western red-backed salamander, is found in southwestern British Columbia. Eastern red-backed salamanders are abundant in most forests within their range. However, they often go unseen because they spend most of their time underground, under the leaf litter or objects such as logs, stumps and rocks.

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Toad Species in Canada

Toad is a common name for frogs belonging to the family Bufonidae. The distinction is not firm, but the word toad is generally applied to frogs with relatively short legs and thick bodies, dry, often “warty” skin and reduced webbing between the toes. Five toad species are found in Canada, living in drier habitats than most other frogs. In Canada, other frogs commonly called toads are the Plains and Great Basin spadefoots (family Scaphiopodidae). For more general information about frogs (including toads) see Frog Species in Canada.

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Frog Species in Canada

Frogs are amphibians belonging to the order Anura. Worldwide, frogs are the most numerous group of amphibians, with more than 5,000 living species. They are found on all continents except Antarctica. There are 24 species of frog currently found in Canada. In addition, one species, the Blanchard’s cricket frog, is extirpated. This means that, while it continues to live in other parts of its range, it is no longer found in Canada. Five of Canada’s frog species are toads, which are frogs belonging to the family Bufonidae. While most frog species in Canada are found in the southern reaches of the country, a few, for example the boreal chorus frog, have ranges extending into Yukon and the Northwest Territories, and in the case of the wood frog, Nunavut.

timeline event

Earth Has Warmest June Ever Recorded

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which has been monitoring the weather and recording temperatures since 1880, announced that the global temperature in June 2019 averaged 15.9˚C, beating out June 2016 as the hottest on record. Regional temperature records for June were also set in Europe, Russia, Asia, Africa and South America. “Earth is running a fever that won't break thanks to climate change,” reported North Carolina state climatologist Kathie Dello. “This won’t be the last record warm summer month that we will see.”

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Natural Regions

Natural regions are intended to describe areas of the Earth's surface which possess similar qualities or attributes. They may refer to either land or water, and can vary in size. The term “natural region” is often used interchangeably with the word “ecozone.”

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Steven Guilbeault

Steven Guilbeault, PC, MP, ecologist, author, columnist and lecturer (born 9 June 1970 in La Tuque, Quebec). In 2009, French magazine Le Monde recognized Guilbeault as one of the world’s 50 leading figures in the field of sustainable development. The Cercle des Phénix de l’environnement du Québec also recognized Guilbeault the same year. Guilbeault earned recognition through his work with Greenpeace and as a co-founder of Équiterre. He also served as a columnist for various media outlets, including Métro, Radio-Canada, La Presse and Corporate Knight magazine. During the 2019 federal election, Guilbeault was elected the Liberal Member of Parliament for Montreal’s Laurier─Sainte-Marie riding. Shortly thereafter, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau appointed Guilbeault to his Cabinet as minister of Canadian heritage.