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Doukhobors are a sect of Russian dissenters, many of whom now live in western Canada. They are known for a radical pacifism which brought them notoriety during the 20th century. Today, their descendants in Canada number approximately 30,000, with one third still active in their culture.


Grand Duchess Olga

Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia, watercolour artist and farmer (born 13 June 1882 in St. Petersburg, Russia; died 24 November 1960 in Toronto, Ontario). Grand Duchess Olga was the sister of the last czar of Russia. She and her family fled to Denmark following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and then to Canada after the Second World War. Hundreds of thousands of Russians immigrated to Canada in the first half of the 20th century. They included industrial and agricultural workers and members of the former Russian aristocracy.


Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force

In 1918, Canada sent troops to Russia as part of an Allied intervention to support Russian government forces against Bolshevik revolutionaries. One group of Canadian soldiers operated in northern Russia, around the ports of Murmansk and Archangel, while another, much larger group, the Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force (CSEF), was based at Vladivostok. Although the CSEF never fought any battles, 21 Canadians died, most because of disease or accident.