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La Tuque

La Tuque, Quebec, incorporated 1911, population 11,001 (2016 census), 11,227 (2011 census). La Tuque is located on the Rivière Saint-Maurice, 165 km north of Trois-Rivières. The town was built at the start of the 20th century at the site of a former trading post. It owes its name to a mountain shaped like a triangular woolen hat, popularly known as a “tuque.” The town’s economy is driven in large part by the forestry industry.


K.C. Irving

Kenneth Colin (K.C.) Irving, OC, industrialist and entrepreneur (born 14 March 1899 in Bouctouche, NB; died 13 December 1992 in Saint John, NB). K.C. Irving built a business empire under the Irving name that ranges from pulp and paper and oil refining to newspaper publishing and broadcasting. He has been called New Brunswick’s first modern entrepreneurial industrialist. Businesses he founded were divided up among his sons and remain within the family. Irving companies continue to account for a large portion of New Brunswick’s economic activity.

timeline event

White Paper Published

A federal White Paper on Indian Affairs proposes abolishing the Indian Act, Indian status, and reserves, and transferring responsibility for Indian affairs to the provinces. In response, Cree Chief Harold Cardinal writes the Red Paper, calling for recognition of Indigenous peoples as “Citizens Plus.” The government later withdraws the proposal after considerable opposition from Indigenous organizations.


The White Paper, 1969

The 1969 White Paper (formally known as the “Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969”) was a Canadian government policy paper that attempted to abolish previous legal documents relating to Indigenous peoples in Canada, including the Indian Act and  treaties. It also aimed to assimilate all “Indian” peoples under the Canadian state. The 1969 White Paper was proposed by Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development  Jean Chrétien and Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau to widespread criticism. The policy proposed to eliminate Indian Status, incorporate First Nations under provincial government responsibilities, and impose land decisions, notions of private property and economic agendas on Indigenous communities. The backlash to the 1969 White Paper was monumental, leading not only to its withdrawal in 1970, but to a wave of activism, academic work and court decisions over the next five decades. (See also Indigenous Political Organization and Activism in Canadaand Indigenous Peoples in Canadian Law.)


Corner Brook

Corner Brook, NL, incorporated as a city in 1956, population 19 886 (2011c), 20 083 (2006c). The City of Corner Brook is located on Humber Arm of the Bay of Islands on Newfoundland's western coast.


Conception Bay South

Conception Bay South, NL, incorporated as a town in 1973, population 24 848 (2011c), 21 966 (2006c). The town of Conception Bay South is located on the southeast shore of Conception Bay on the Avalon Peninsula.


Deer Lake

Deer Lake, NL, incorporated as a town in 1950, population 4995 (2011c), 4827 (2006c). The Town of Deer Lake is located at the north end of Deer Lake in western Newfoundland.


Cape Bonavista

Cape Bonavista, elevation 15-30 m, is the bare, rocky extremity of the Bonavista Peninsula, north of the town of Bonavista in eastern Newfoundland.



Burgeo, NL, incorporated as a town in 1950, population 1464 (2011c), 1607 (2006c).



Botwood, NL, incorporated as a town in 1960, population 3008 (2011c), 3052 (2006c). The Town of Botwood is located in the Bay of Exploits, a long arm of Notre Dame Bay on the north coast of Newfoundland.



Carbonear, NL, incorporated as a town in 1948, population 4739 (2011c), 4723 (2006c). The Town of Carbonear is located on the west shore of Conception Bay and is one of the oldest settlements in Newfoundland and Labrador.


Placentia Bay

Placentia Bay, from the French plaisance (meaning a "pleasant place"), is a large, deep bay formed by Newfoundland's Burin Peninsula to the west, and the southwestern Avalon Peninsula to the east.



Hopedale, NL, incorporated as a community in 2006, population 556 (2011c), 530 (2006c). Hopedale is an Inuit community located on a small peninsula jutting into the North Atlantic north of Deep Inlet on the Labrador coast.


Heart's Content

Heart's Content, NL, incorporated as a town in 1967, population 418 (2011c), 418 (2006c). The Town of Heart's Content is a fishing community on a protected, urn-shaped harbour in eastern Trinity Bay.


Harbour Grace

Harbour Grace, NL, incorporated as a town in 1945, population 3131 (2011c), 3074 (2006c). The Town of Harbour Grace, with its commodious harbour in western Conception Bay, was named for the French Havre de Grâce.


Harbour Breton

Harbour Breton, NL, incorporated as a town in 1952, population 1711 (2011c), 1877 (2006c). The Town of Harbour Breton is situated around a protected harbour near the mouth of Fortune Bay on Newfoundland's south coast.