Browse "Business & Economics"

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Pay Television

Although undertaken experimentally in Etobicoke, Ontario, between 1960 and 1965, pay television as a major venture was licensed only in March 1982, after a decade of debate.

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Petroleum

Since its first commercial exploitation in the 1850s, petroleum has become the major energy source of Canada and the industrial world.

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Small Presses

Traditionally the difference between small press publishers and trade publishers has been one of scale, purpose and ideology. Trade publishers are entrepreneurs with large operations, comprising many departments and geared to market books that will be profitable.

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Protectionism

Protectionism refers to government policies that shield domestic production (and producers) from foreign competition.

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Quill & Quire

Quill & Quire is a magazine of the Canadian book trade. It is read chiefly by publishers, booksellers, librarians, writers and educators. Founded by the Seccombe family in 1935, it was a monthly magazine serving stationers and booksellers.

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Québec Shoe Workers' Strike

The Québec Shoe Workers' Strike, properly a lockout, 27 October-10 December 1900, was the first direct intervention in a labour conflict by Québec Catholic clergy and the first step toward the creation of Catholic unions (see CONFEDERATION OF NATIONAL TRADE UNIONS).

Macleans

Via Rail Resurgent

Transport Minister David Collenette calls himself a train buff. As a boy growing up in post-war England, he says the sights and sounds of London's Marylebone Station were an everyday fascination.

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Retail Trade

There are 2 broad categories of retail-trade organization: retail chains, which operate 4 or more stores in the same kind of business under the same ownership, and independent retailers operating 1 to 3 stores.

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Seagram

Seagram Company Limited, commonly known as Seagram or Seagram’s, was the world’s largest producer and distributor of distilled spirits. Its head offices were in Montréal. While Seagram traced its roots back to a distillery founded in 1857, it was incorporated as a public company in 1928 under the name Distillers Corporation-Seagrams Ltd., a holding company that acquired the capital stocks of Distillers Corporation Ltd. and Joseph E. Seagram & Sons Ltd. It gained notoriety during American prohibition (1920–33), during which time Seagram legally exported spirits directly and circuitously to the United States. The company was majority owned and operated by the Bronfman family; Samuel Bronfman established the company in 1928 and his eldest son, Edgar, took over after his death in 1971. Edgar in turn handed control to his son Edgar Jr. in 1994. The company expanded and diversified a few times, branching from the liquor business to the oil and gas industry in the 1950s and 1960s, the petrochemicals industry in the 1980s, with industry giant DuPont, and the entertainment and communications business in the 1990s, with MCA Inc. and Universal. In 2000, the company was sold to French conglomerate Vivendi, who retained Seagram’s entertainment and communications wing but sold its distilling interests to Pernod Ricard and Diageo.

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Sunday Shopping

On 24 April 1985 the Supreme Court of Canada in the BIG M DRUG MART case struck down the Lord's Day Act on the grounds that it contravened the freedom of religion and conscience provision in the CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS.

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Stagflation

Stagflation, the combination of high unemployment and high rates of INFLATION. Prior to the late 1960s, variations in economic activity were caused primarily by "demand shocks" (fluctuations in aggregate demand or total expenditure).

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Toronto Star

Writing at the Star was determinedly lively. In the 1920s and 1930s, writers included Morley CALLAGHAN, Ernest Hemingway, Gordon SINCLAIR and Gregory CLARK.

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Statistics

Statistics is the science concerned with the collection and analysis of numerical information to answer questions wisely. The term also refers to the numerical information that has been collected. Statistics has many applications in Canada, from government censuses and surveys, to decision making in industry, to medical research and technological innovation.

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Sun (Vancouver)

The Sun, Vancouver's largest daily newspaper, first appeared as The Vancouver Sun, 12 February 1912, "to consistently advocate the principles of Liberalism." Under publisher Robert Cromie and his sons, the Sun tended to support the Liberals but was often critical of them.

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Woven Textiles

Canada has a rich history of weaving stretching back to the precontact Indigenous peoples and enriched by each succeeding wave of immigrants.

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Wholesale Trade

Wholesalers (also called distributors) buy goods for resale to retailers (see RETAIL TRADE), industrial, commercial, governmental, institutional and professional users or to other wholesalers. They also act as agents in connection with such sales.