Browse "History"

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Canadian Red Ensign

The Canadian Red Ensign was the de facto Canadian national flag from 1868 until 1965 when it was replaced by the maple leaf design. Based on the ensign flown by British merchant ships since 1707, the three successive formal designs of the Canadian Red Ensign bore the Canadian coats of arms of 1868, 1921 and 1957.

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Canadian Studies

The use of the phrase "Canadian studies" to designate a distinctive interdisciplinary approach to research and teaching about Canada owes much to the evolution of Canadian NATIONALISM in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1968, inspired by the Centennial celebrations, A.B.

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Capitulation of Montréal 1760

The capitulation of Montréal to the British on 8 September 1760 effectively completed Britain’s conquest of New France in the Seven Years' War (the war itself would continue until 1763, at which point the French colony formally became a British possession).

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Carignan-Salières Regiment

Carignan-Salières Regiment, of some 1100 strong, sent from France in June 1665 to curb the devastating attacks of the IROQUOIS on Canadian settlements. By November a chain of forts had been built along the Rivière RICHELIEU, blocking that main invasion route.

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Caroline Affair

After the failed Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada, its leader, William Lyon Mackenzie, retreated to Navy Island, in the Niagara River, accompanied by some 200 followers. The Caroline, an American ship based at Fort Schlosser in New York State, was chartered to bring supplies to the rebels. On 29 December 1837, a force of the Upper Canada militia led by Commander Andrew Drew of the Royal Navy found the Caroline moored at Schlosser. In the quick skirmish that followed, an American was killed. The Caroline, set on fire and adrift, capsized before reaching the falls and sank. The incident aggravated the already tense relationship between the United Kingdom and the United States.

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Carry On

'Carry On'. Patriotic song popular during World War II. The music was written by Ernest Dainty as part of the orchestral accompaniment to the Canadian silent feature film Carry On Sergeant. Extracted from the score, the tune was given lyrics by Gordon V.

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Castle Frank

Castle Frank was a concession of land in the colonial town of York, purchased by John Graves Simcoe in the name of his son, Francis, in 1793. A log house later built on the site also bore the same name. Today the name Castle Frank is preserved as a street, a brook and a station on Toronto’s transit line.

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Champlain Society

The Champlain Society was founded 1905 in Toronto by Sir Edmund Walker to increase public awareness of, and accessibility to, Canada's rich store of historical records. Membership, limited at first to 250, is now approximately 800.

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Charlottetown Bombing

Even for a symbolic act of violence it was a particularly cynical target - the tiny, perfect Prince Edward Island legislature in Charlottetown where the Fathers of Confederation once thrashed out the terms for the formation of Canada.

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Charlottetown Conference

The Charlottetown Conference of September 1864 set Confederation in motion. The meeting brought together delegates from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island to discuss the union of their three provinces.

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Château Clique

 Château Clique, nickname given to the small group of officials, usually members of the anglophone merchant community, including John MOLSON and James MCGILL, who dominated the executive and legislative councils, the judiciary and senior bureaucratic positions of LOWER CANADA until the 1830s.

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Château Frontenac

Built by Canadian Pacific beginning in 1892, and designed by architect Bruce Price, the Château Frontenac is an excellent example of château-style hotels developed by railway companies in Canada.

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Chateau Lake Louise

Chateau Lake Louise is a world-renowned mountain resort and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Banff National Park, Alberta. Known as the “Diamond in the Wilderness,” the chateau was built beginning in the late 1800s, and was developed as part of the CPR’s network of hotels. It shares a lineage with the Banff Springs Hotel, Le Chateau Frontenac in Québec City and the Empress Hotel in Victoria. Considering its remote location and its eventual scale, the Chateau Lake Louise marked an important point in the development of the Canadian West.

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Château Ramezay

​Château Ramezay, in Old Montréal, was the first building to be designated a historic monument by the government of Québec, in 1929.