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Youth Criminal Justice Act

The Youth Criminal Justice Act, which was proclaimed in force on 1 April 2003, replaces the Young Offenders Act. It applies to a young person, or youth, who is or who appears to be 12 years old or older, but who is less than 18 years old and who is alleged to have committed an offence as a youth.

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Yukon Arts Council

Yukon Arts Council. Organization founded as an independent society under the Yukon Societies Ordinance in October 1971. Prior to that time, some of its musical responsibilities were carried out by the Whitehorse Concert Association, active from the late 1950s to 1970.

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Yukon Field Force

Yukon Field Force (1898-1900), composed of 203 officers and men drawn from all 3 branches (cavalry, artillery and infantry) of the Permanent Force of the Canadian Militia.

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Yukon River

At 3,185 km (1,149 km of which lie in Canada), the Yukon River is the fifth-longest river in North America.

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Zed

Zed is the name of the letter Z. The pronunciation zed is more commonly used in Canadian English than zee. English speakers in other Commonwealth countries also prefer the pronunciation zed. As zed is the British pronunciation and zee is chiefly American, zed represents one of the rare occasions in which most Canadians prefer the British to the American pronunciation. Use of zee is often stigmatized among Canadian English speakers, which is likely the reason why zee has not taken root as quickly as other influences from American English.

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Zero Patience

Zero Patience (1993), director/writer/video artist John GREYSON's first theatrical release, is one of his most scathing and strangely hilarious indictments of systematic homophobia.

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Zinc

Zinc (Zn) is a bluish-white metal of low to intermediate hardness that melts at 419°C and is estimated to comprise about 0.013% of the earth's crust. Zinc is an essential element for human health; over 200 enzymes in the body require zinc for proper functioning.

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Zoning

Zoning is the term used to describe the control by authority of the use of land, and of the buildings and improvements thereon. Areas of land are divided by appropriate authorities into zones within which various uses are permitted.

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Zooarchaeology

 In Canada most zooarchaeologists study teeth, bone and marine shells, because these materials are commonly preserved on archaeological sites. Preservation of specimens depends on what happened to them before burial, the rate at which they were buried, and the burial environment.

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Zoology

Zoology is the study of ANIMALS. Zoologists have many interests: some study form (morphology) or function (physiology), from gross to molecular levels; behaviour (ethology); association (ecology); or distribution (zoogeography); and some specialize in one kind of animal.

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Zoology

Zoology is the study of animals, including their classification, behaviour and distribution. The Canadian Encyclopedia is home to over 300 articles on Canadian animals and related topics, organized in this collection by category.

Image: ©Paul Nicklen/National Geographic Creative.

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Zooplankton

Zooplankton, weakly swimming animals belonging to many phyla (primary divisions of the animal kingdom), which, as larvae or adults, exist wholly suspended within a water body.

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Zoos

Zoos or zoological gardens are facilities exhibiting wild and domesticated animals for purposes of education, recreation, conservation and research. Zoological gardens can be conventional, dense-occupancy zoos to open animal parks and game farms.

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Zouaves

Between February 1868 and September 1870, 7 contingents totalling 507 Canadians enrolled in the papal army (whose soldiers were known as Papal Zouaves) to help defend Rome from the Italian troops who wanted to bring about Italian unification.

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Zundel Case

The Zundel case (1992) centred on the constitutional validity of section 181 of the Criminal Code which prohibits the wilful dissemination of false news. Zundel had published a brochure entitled "Did Six Million Really Die?".