Search for "international relations"

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Garbage Dispute with the Philippines Ends

The Philippines lifted its bans on travel to Canada and interacting with Canadian officials. It had imposed the bans after Canada missed a 15 May deadline to remove 69 shipping containers filled with garbage. The containers were mislabelled as recycling and had been sitting in Philippine ports for up to six years. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte had threatened to declare war on Canada if the garbage was not taken back.

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Canada and the World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization that regulates global trade. It is based in Geneva, Switzerland. Canada is one of its 164 members. The country plays a central role in the WTO and was also a key member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that preceded it. In addition to helping craft the WTO’s dispute resolution systems, Canada is among those countries most directly involved in its trade dispute cases.

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Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA)

The Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) is a free trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico. It is a revised and renamed version of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The leaders of the three countries signed CUSMA in November 2018 after 13 months of intense negotiations that concluded in September. Canada was the last country to pass enabling legislation, which received royal assent on 13 March 2020. The agreement came into effect on 1 July 2020.

CUSMA is expected to have only a modest impact on economic growth. However, it could have a major impact on the restructuring of the North American economy. It may also limit Canada’s policy options in moving to a new economy based on knowledge, data and intellectual property.

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Canadian-American Relations

Canada and the United States have a unique relationship. Two sovereign states, occupying the bulk of North America and sharing the world's longest undefended border, each reliant on the other for trade, continental security and prosperity. Despite radically different beginnings, as well as a history of war, conflict and cultural suspicion, the two countries stand as a modern example of inter-dependence and co-operation.

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Persian Gulf War, 1990-91

In 1991, Canada joined an international military coalition to confront Iraq following its invasion of Kuwait. Canada contributed warships and fighter aircraft to the successful campaign to liberate Kuwait. It was the first time Canada sent women to war in combat roles, and it was the first time in decades that Canadian air and naval forces supported each other in a war zone. More than 5,100 Canadian military personnel served in the war, with a peak of about 2,700 in the region at one time. No members of the Canadian armed forces died during the conflict.

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Middle Power

In international relations, the term middle power refers to a state that wields less influence on the world stage than a superpower. As the term suggests, middle powers fall in the middle of the scale measuring a country’s international influence. Where superpowers have great influence over other countries, middle powers have moderate influence over international events. Canada was considered to be a middle power during the postwar period — from 1945 until about 1960. Though Canada was not as powerful or prominent as the United Kingdom or the United States during this time, it was an international player that influenced events through moral leadership, peacekeeping and conflict mediation.

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Huawei CFO Arrested in Vancouver

Meng Wanzhou, the chief financial officer of China’s Huawei Technologies and the daughter of its founder, Ren Zhengfei, was arrested at Vancouver International Airport at the request of American law enforcement authorities. Suspected of violating US trade sanctions against Iran, Meng faced extradition to the United States. The Chinese embassy in Ottawa, however, denied Meng had broken any laws and demanded her immediate release. She was released on C$10 million bail on 11 December and confined to one of her two Vancouver homes. Her arrest sparked a diplomatic crisis between China and Canada that saw China detain at least 13 Canadians in retaliation.

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Canada Temporarily Closes Embassy in Venezuela

Canada announced the closure of its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela. Canada had been supporting opposition leader Juan Guaido’s claim to the presidency after Nicolas Maduro’s re-election in May 2018 was condemned as illegitimate. Canadian diplomats were told their visas would not be renewed after expiring at the end of the month. “Therefore,” Foerign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland said, “we are left with no choice but to temporarily suspend our operations at the Embassy of Canada to Venezuela, effective immediately.” On 9 June, Venezuela temporarily closed its consulates in Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal. It’s embassy in Ottawa remained open.

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Canada Agrees to Join Trade Accord with US and Mexico

After more than a year of negotiations with the United States and Mexico, Canada reached a last-minute agreement to sign a new NAFTA deal. The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) will retain the Chapter 19 dispute resolution clause but will also allow greater access to Canada’s dairy market. The USMCA was set to be signed at the end of November 2018 and then sent to the three national legislative bodies for ratification.

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Genocide

Genocide is the intentional destruction of a particular group through killing, serious physical or mental harm, preventing births and/or forcibly transferring children to another group. The Canadian government has formally recognized five instances of genocide abroad: the Armenian genocide, the Holodomor, the Holocaust, the Rwandan genocide and the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia. Within Canada, some historians, legal scholars and activists have claimed that the historical, intergenerational and present treatment of Indigenous peoples are acts of genocide.

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Canadian Foreign Relations

Through its history, Canada has taken a series of increasingly bold steps to develop from a British colony into an independent nation. Both the world wars were turning points, with Canada's military sacrifices giving it the strength and confidence to demand its own voice on the world stage. In the postwar era, Canada has maintained its role in both Western and global alliances. However, relations with the United States – because of its singular importance to Canadian security and trade – have dominated Canada's foreign policy since Confederation.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is an abstract legal concept. It also has political, social and economic implications. In strictly legal terms, sovereignty describes the power of a state to govern itself and its subjects. In this sense, sovereignty is the highest source of the law. With Confederation and the passage of the British North America Act, 1867, Canada’s Parliament was still legally under the authority of the British Parliament. By 1949, Canada had become fully sovereign in relation to Great Britain. This was due to landmark legislation such as the Statute of Westminster (1931). The Constitution Act, 1982 swept away Britain’s leftover authority. Questions of sovereignty have also been raised by Indigenous peoples in Canada and by separatists in Quebec. The latter, for a time, championed the concept of sovereignty-association.

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Former Finance Minister and Diplomat Michael Wilson Dies at Age 81

A former Progressive Conservative MP for Etobicoke Centre, Wilson served in Parliament for more than ten years. He was finance minister and minister of international trade under Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. Wilson was Canada’s ambassador to the United States from 2006 to 2009 and served as chancellor of the University of Toronto from 2012 to 2018.

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Oil and Gas Policy in Canada, 1947–80

Federal and provincial governments have regulated, taxed and controlled the development of Canada’s oil industry for much of its history. Governments have been particularly active in these capacities since it became clear, in the late 1940s, that Canada could become an exporting nation. From the early 1960s to the early 1970s, the federal government increased its role in an effort to help develop the oil industry. From 1973 until the early 1980s, the federal government also worked to end Canada’s dependence on foreign oil.