Chief Smallboy focused national attention on urban and reserve Indigenous problems when he "returned to the land" with followers from troubled Indigenous settlements. Born of a traditional Cree family who were among the last to settle on their allotted reserve at Hobbema in central Alberta, Smallboy became a hunter, trapper, farmer, and eventually chief of the Ermineskin Band from 1959 to 1969. In 1968, to escape deteriorating social and political conditions on the reserve, he moved to a bush camp on the Kootenay Plains, accompanied by some 125 people. Despite factional splits, the return of many residents to Hobbema, and the group's failure to obtain permanent land tenure, Smallboy Camp persisted into the 1980s as a working community used as a retreat by Plains and Woodlands Indigenous peoples from western Canada and the US.
- MLA 8TH EDITION
- McCardle, Bennett. "Johnny Bob Smallboy". The Canadian Encyclopedia, 13 December 2013, Historica Canada. www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/johnny-bob-smallboy. Accessed 10 December 2023.
- APA 6TH EDITION
- McCardle, B. (2013). Johnny Bob Smallboy. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/johnny-bob-smallboy
- CHICAGO 17TH EDITION
- McCardle, Bennett. "Johnny Bob Smallboy." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Article published February 04, 2008; Last Edited December 13, 2013.
- TURABIAN 8TH EDITION
- The Canadian Encyclopedia, s.v. "Johnny Bob Smallboy," by Bennett McCardle, Accessed December 10, 2023, https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/johnny-bob-smallboy
Johnny Bob Smallboy
Article by Bennett McCardle
Published Online February 4, 2008
Last Edited December 13, 2013