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Article

The Great Depression in Canada

The Great Depression of the early 1930s was a worldwide social and economic shock. Few countries were affected as severely as Canada. Millions of Canadians were left unemployed, hungry and often homeless. The decade became known as the Dirty Thirties due to a crippling droughtin the Prairies, as well as Canada’s dependence on raw material and farm exports. Widespread losses of jobs and savings transformed the country. The Depression triggered the birth of social welfare and the rise of populist political movements. It also led the government to take a more activist role in the economy.

(This is the full-length entry about the Great Depression in Canada. For a plain-language summary, please see Great Depression in Canada (Plain-Language Summary).)

Interactive Map

Residential Schools in Canada Interactive Map

The map below indicates the location of many residential schools in Canada. Click on individual points to learn a school’s name, religious denomination, opening and closing dates, and any other names by which the school was known. This map does not reflect every residential school that operated in the country. It only includes schools listed in the Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement and a similar agreement reached for survivors of schools in Newfoundland and Labrador. This means that schools that operated without the support of the federal government — as in schools run by a province, a religious order, or both — are not included on this map. Day schools, where many Indigenous students experienced treatment similar to that described at residential schools, are also not included.

Article

2018 Toronto Danforth Shooting

Minutes before 10:00 p.m. on Sunday 22 July 2018, a 29-year-old man walked into a busy Toronto neighbourhood and began shooting people indiscriminately. He walked along Danforth Avenue, shooting others before exchanging gunfire with police and turning his handgun on himself. The shooter killed 18-year-old Reese Fallon and 10-year-old Julianna Kozis and left 13 people injured. The rampage led to calls for more gun control in Canada.

Article

Séminaire de Québec

Séminaire de Québec, an educational institution consisting of the Grand Séminaire and the Petit Séminaire. The former, fd 26 Mar 1663 by Mgr François de LAVAL, was to train priests and guarantee parish ministries and evangelization throughout the diocese. In 1665 it was affiliated with the Séminaire des Missions Étrangères de Paris.

Article

"Come Back, Old Pal"

"Come Back, Old Pal" is a waltz ballad, with music and words by Merton Plunkett of the Dumbells. It was sung by Plunkett in the Dumbells' 1922 production Carry On, and was published that year by Leo Feist.

Article

Halifax Explosion

Halifax was devastated on 6 December 1917 when two ships collided in the city's harbour, one of them a munitions ship loaded with explosives bound for the battlefields of the First World War. What followed was one of the largest human-made explosions prior to the detonation of the first atomic bombs in 1945. The north end of Halifax was wiped out by the blast and subsequent tsunami. Nearly 2,000 people died, another 9,000 were maimed or blinded, and more than 25,000 were left without adequate shelter.

Article

Money in Canada

Money consists of anything that is generally accepted for the settlement of debts or the purchase of goods or services. The evolution of money as a system for regulating society’s economic transactions represented a significant advancement over earlier forms of exchange based on barter, in which goods and services are exchanged for other goods or services. Canadian money has its roots in the Indigenous wampum belts of the East, the early currencies of European settlers and the influence of the United States.

Click here for definitions of key terms used in this article.

Article

Wild Nuts in Canada

Nuts are the hard-shelled fruits of flowering trees or shrubs. Within each shell are one or more seed kernels that are easily separated from the outer shell. Most nuts are edible and nutritious, and are sought after by many animals as well as people. There are about 20 edible nut species native to Canada. Most of these species are found in the Great Lakes-St Lawrence and deciduous forest regions of southeastern Canada, including the American hazelnut (Corylus americana), American beechnut (Fagus grandifolia) and black walnut (Juglans nigra). Nuts found in western Canada include the beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), and garry oak acorns (Quercus garryana). Virtually all are known to have been used as food by Indigenous Peoples. Some are still harvested and used today, but most have been replaced in peoples’ diets by imported nut species such as European filbert (Corylus avellana), English or Persian walnut (Juglans regia), American pecan (Carya illinoinensis) and cashews (Anacardium occidentale). This article includes descriptions of the most widely-used wild nuts in Canada.

Article

HMCS Niobe

His Majesty’s Canadian Ship (HMCS) Niobe was a 11,000-ton Diadem-class heavy protected cruiser, which was originally commissioned into Britain’s Royal Navy. In 1910, Britain sold the vessel to Canada, where it became one of the first two warships of the new Royal Canadian Navy. Niobe saw a few years’ service, including briefly during the First World War. In 1915, due to the ship’s deteriorating condition, it was tied up in Halifax’s naval dockyard and used as a depot ship.

Article

Battle of Coronel

In the Battle of Coronel, warships of the powerful German East Asiatic Squadron defeated a much weaker Royal Navy squadron. The battle was fought off the coast of Chile near the port city of Coronel on 1 November 1914. Four midshipmen of the Royal Canadian Navy went down with the British flagship. They were the first Canadians to die in battle during the First World War.

Article

British Subject Status

British subject status was the precursor to Canadian citizenship, which was created on 1 January 1947 with the passage of the Canadian Citizenship Act. Until then, people who were considered Canadian citizens were subjects of the British Empire. In a monarchy, subjects serve the monarch; but in a democracy, the state serves its citizens. Changing Canadians from subjects to citizens provided a fundamental advancement in Canada’s democracy, rule of law, and civil rights. Like the Statute of Westminster in 1931, it was a key step in Canada’s journey toward sovereignty and autonomy from Britain.

Article

By-election in Canada

A by-election is a special election in one riding. It is typically held to fill a seat in a legislature that is left vacant by the death or resignation of a member of that legislature. By-elections seldom earn much attention beyond the ridings in which they take place. Voter turnout is often lower than in general elections. However, by-elections can be nationally important if a riding switches from one party to another, and if that change alters the balance of power in the House of Commons or a provincial legislature. By-election results can also be important indicators of the popularity of a government, of parties, and of party leaders.

Article

Opposition Party in Canada

An opposition party is a political party that does not win enough seats in a general election to form a government. The elected members of that party instead serve in the legislature as the opposition. An opposition party criticizes and challenges the governing party, with the goal of improving legislation and forming the government in the next election. The opposition party with the most seats is called the Official Opposition or Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition. This title emphasizes that the party remains loyal to the Crown even as they oppose the governing party. The leader of the opposition party with the most seats is called the leader of the Opposition.

Article

Alex Polowin (Primary Source)

Alex Polowin was a Lithuanian-Jewish Canadian who served in the Royal Canadian Navy on HMCS Huron, a Tribal class destroyer. Polowin escorted convoys to Murmasnk to supply the Soviets, hunted down the battleship Scharnhorst, and supported the amphibious invasion of Normandy in 1944. Listen to Polowin describe his motivations for enlisting in the Navy and the operations in which he took part.

Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Roland "Rolly" Gravel (Primary Source)

Roland “Rolly” Gravel served as a gunner with The Fusiliers Mont-Royal regiment during the Second World War. He was among the 6,000 troops who landed at the coastal port of Dieppe, France, on 19 August 1942. The attack was a disaster, and Gravel was taken prisoner. Learn all about the hardships Gravel faced as prisoner of war.

Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Sheila Elizabeth Whitton (Primary Source)

During the Second World War, Sheila Elizabeth Whitton was a coder for the Canadian Navy. Whitton was sent to England in preparation for D-Day to work on coding machines instrumental to the Allies’ success. Read and listen to Whitton’s recount of the loss of her husband in the war and the resilience she had to put forward.

Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Leonard Braithwaite (Primary Source)

Leonard Braithwaite served with the Canadian Air Force as a Safety Equipment Operator from 1943 to 1946. However, he was rejected multiple times at a Toronto recruiting station because he was Black. Read and listen to the story of how Braithwaite overcame adversity and served overseas.

Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Sandra Perron (Primary Source)

Sandra Perron was a captain in the Royal 22e Régiment of the Canadian Forces. She served on peacekeeping missions overseas. Perron completed two tours in former Yugoslavia where she helped many displaced Bosnian children find shelter and much needed care. Listen to Perron’s story as she details her experiences as a Canadian Peacekeeper.

Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Marshall Chow (Primary Source)

Marshall Chow served as a wireless operator during the Second World War. Initially refused entry into the Air Force because he was Chinese Canadian, Chow was later stationed overseas with the Canadian Army from 1941 to 1945. Read and listen to Chow describe his battles against prejudice and the horrors on the frontlines.

Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Thomas Kwok Hung “Tommy” Wong (Primary Source)

Thomas Kwok Hung Wong was one of the first Chinese Canadians accepted into the Royal Canadian Air Force. Wong applied in 1939 but was not accepted until two years later when Canada declared war on Japan. Despite enduring discrimination, Wong achieved the highest groundcrew promotion and worked as an aircraft inspector. Listen to Wong’s testimony of service and his contributions to the enfranchisement of Chinese Canadians.

Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.