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Media and the Law
The media are the means by which we receive information we want and need. Over time, town criers and clay tablets have given way to printed text. Now, a wide variety of aural and visual information is conveyed to us in bits and bytes through a number of intermediaries.
Sentencing Hate Crimes
For many offences, the Criminal Code prescribes only maximum sentences, giving judges wide latitude to determine fit penalties. Judges consider a broad array of aggravating and mitigating factors in sentencing. One aggravating factor is the motivation of racial or group hatred for an offence.
In Canada, the public promotion of hate against identifiable groups and the advocacy of genocide is, under certain conditions, a criminal offence, punishable by up to 2 years' imprisonment.
The duty which requires physicians to keep the information they receive from their patients confidential is well established in Canadian common law, health care legislation and professional codes of conduct.
Military Justice System
Canada maintains a separate justice system for the Canadian Forces.
Law and the Internet
The INTERNET is a communications network that interconnects various computer networks by way of telecommunications. The nature of Internet technology makes it difficult for the law to regulate Internet users and information that is transmitted on the Internet.
Restitution is a legal response calculated to take away a gain or enrichment that is considered to be inappropriate. It developed to address situations of unjust enrichment that were not adequately addressed by the laws of tort or contract.
Justice Systems of Indigenous Peoples in Canada
Underlying the move toward the establishment of an independent or quasi-independent Indigenous justice system is a recognition that there are certain values and customs historically attached to Indigenous communities. In addition, the concept of an independent justice system is viewed as being consonant with the notion of the inherent right of Indigenous self-government.
Canadian Politicians Ask the Judges to Decide on Same-sex Marriage
Trying to elicit straight talk from politicians on gay marriage can be tricky. Prime Minister Paul Martin looks painfully uncomfortable when the subject arises, far more so than he does when asked about, say, political ethics.
North-West Mounted Police
The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was the forerunner of Canada's iconic Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Created after Confederation to police the frontier territories of the Canadian West, the NWMP ended the whiskey trade on the southern prairies and the violence that came with it, helped the federal government suppress the North-West Rebellion, and brought order to the Klondike Gold Rush. The NWMP pioneered the enforcement of federal law in the West, and the Arctic, from 1873 until 1920.
Saskatchewan Electoral Boundaries (Reference)
The reference on Saskatchewan electoral boundaries (1991) comprised an important decision by the Supreme Court on the right to vote as set out in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Pickton Preliminary Hearing
DAWN SANGRET, 19 years a resident of Port Coquitlam, B.C., arrives at the city's provincial court last week seeking answers. "I have my suspicions about a lot of things," she says.
In the Cooper case (1996), a majority of the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the Canadian Human Rights Commission did not have the power under its enabling statute to pronounce upon the constitutional validity of the mandatory age of retirement.
In the Kindler case (1991), the majority of judges on the Supreme Court ruled that the Canadian procedure in extradition matters did not violate section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which specifies that everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person.
Israel at 50
Gabriel Ben Yitzhak and Jamil Abu Heykal share an uneasy existence on a hilltop overlooking ancient Hebron, a town that was already old when Abraham arrived more than 35 centuries ago. The Jewish patriarch is, in religious tradition if not irrefutable fact, buried near the foot of the hill.
A free trade area as defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is "a group of two or more customs territories in which duties and other restrictive regulations of commerce... are eliminated on substantially all the trade between the constituent territories in products originating in such territories."
The derivation of the three Christian holidays needs no explanation. New Year's Day, January 1, marks the beginning of the new year.
US Backlash Against Affirmative Action
Cathy Wattendorf is a white 20-year-old student taking a "really cool" engineering course and training to be a U.S. Air Force officer in the southwest Virginia college town of Blacksburg.
Children, Education and the Law
In Canada, political and law-making power is shared by the provincial and federal levels of government, as set out in the constitution. Section 93 of the Constitution Act, 1867 gives the provincial governments the exclusive jurisdiction to make laws governing education.