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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the field of study that examines, measures and interprets the electromagnetic spectra produced when radiant energy is emitted or absorbed by a substance. Spectroscopic methods are important in performing chemical analyses of substances and are used in astronomical studies.

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Oberon-class Submarines

The Oberon class was a highly successful British conventional submarine design, operated by the Royal Navy (RN) and exported widely to Commonwealth and allied navies. The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) acquired three of the type in the mid-1960s to act as antisubmarine warfare (ASW) training “targets” for surface and air forces. A major operational update in the 1980s transformed them into true hunter-killer attack submarines and laid the groundwork for a proper submarine force with their replacement by the Victoria class at the turn of the 21st century.

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Assembly of First Nations

The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a political organization representing approximately 900,000 First Nations citizens in Canada. The AFN advocates on behalf of First Nations on issues such as treaties, Indigenous rights, and land and resources. The AFN's Chiefs assemblies are held at least twice a year, where chiefs from each First Nation pass resolutions to direct the organization’s work. There are over 600 First Nations in Canada.

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Edmonton Grads

The Edmonton Grads (1915–40) was a women’s championship basketball team coached by Percy Page. During their 25 years as a team, the Grads won an astounding 95 per cent of their matches. The Grads were national and world champions, often defeating their opponents by lopsided scores. The team won the Underwood International Trophy (USA–Canada) for 17 years straight (1923 to 1940), and was undefeated in 24 matches held in conjunction with the Olympic Summer Games in 1924, 1928 and 1936. The Grads were named to Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 2017.

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Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF)

The Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) runs annually for 10 days in September beginning on the Thursday after Labour Day. The largest film festival in North America, its international stature is second only to the Cannes Film Festival. Unlike most major film festivals, which are open only to members of the industry and media, TIFF’s status as a public festival has made it an ideal testing ground for a film’s commercial appeal. That, combined with its September schedule, has made it a major launching pad for Oscar contenders and the more serious fare of the fall film schedule. It has also proven to be a key showcase for Canadian cinema, documentary films and experimental works. The 2016 edition of TIFF featured 397 films (296 features and 101 shorts), 138 of which were world premieres, while the 2017 lineup was streamlined by 20 per cent.

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Quebec Film History: 1896 to 1969

This entry presents an overview of Quebec cinema, from its beginnings in the silent film era to the burgeoning of a distinctly Quebec cinema in the 1960s. It highlights the most important films, whether in terms of box office success or international acclaim, and covers both narrative features and documentaries. It also draws attention to an aspect of filmmaking that still has difficulty finding its place: women’s cinema.

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Canadian National Railway (CN)

Canadian National Railway Company, incorporated 6 June 1919, is the longest railway system in North America, controlling more than 31,000 km of track in Canada and the United States. It is the only transcontinental rail network in North America, connecting to three coasts: Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico. Known as Canadian National (CN), the former Crown corporation expanded its holdings to include marine operations, hotels, telecommunications and resource industries. However, the core of CN was still its railway system, which had its origins in the amalgamation of five financially troubled railways during the years 1917–23: the Grand Trunk and its subsidiary, the Grand Trunk Pacific; the Intercolonial; the Canadian Northern; and the National Transcontinental. In 1995, CN was sold to private investors. CN is primarily a rail freight company and transports approximately $250 billion worth of goods annually. In 2016, it earned over $12 billion in revenue and employed over 22,000 people in Canada and the US.

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Media Literacy

Media literacy refers to the ability to interpret and understand how various forms of media operate, and the impact those media can have on one’s perspective on people, events or issues. To be media literate is to understand that media are constructions, that audiences negotiate meaning, that all media have commercial, social and political implications, and that the content of media depends in part on the nature of the medium. Media literacy involves thinking critically and actively deconstructing the media one consumes. It also involves understanding one’s role as a consumer and creator of media and understanding the ways in which governments regulate media.

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Fraser Canyon War

The Fraser Canyon War (a.k.a. the “Fraser River War” and the “miners’ war”) was a war waged by mainly white American gold miners against the Nlaka’pamux Indigenous people of the Fraser Canyon in the summer of 1858. The war began when the miners, arriving as part of the Fraser River Gold Rush in June 1858, perceived scattered Nlaka’pamux attacks in defense of their territories as a coordinated effort to drive them by force from their claims. Driven by a hunger for gold and a sense of entitlement to Indigenous peoples’ territories and resources, American miners formed military companies and carried out violent attacks on Nlaka’pamux communities. The war ended on 21 August 1858, when the Nlaka’pamux and miners called a truce. Under threat of further violence, the Nlaka’pamux agreed to grant miners access to their territories and resources, bringing the immediate conflict to a close. The conflict bears resemblance to the Chilcotin War of 1864, another Indigenous-newcomer conflict in the colonial history of British Columbia.

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Reservoir

Reservoirs, as discussed here, do not include any type of subsurface reservoir structure that stores water, natural gas or oil.

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Fish

Fishes are members of a large, heterogeneous group of vertebrates living in a wide variety of aquatic habitats.

Macleans

Kennedy Jr. Buried at Sea

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on August 2, 1999. Partner content is not updated.

As they waited last week for the inevitable confirmation that the most famous son of their fabled political dynasty was in fact gone, Americans were drawn to places with a special connection to the Kennedy family.

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Latimer Convicted, Again

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on November 17, 1997. Partner content is not updated.

Robert Latimer watches in detached amusement as a kitten plays with his shoelaces. It is the day after a second jury has found him guilty of second-degree murder, and he is relaxing with half a dozen relatives on the deck in front of his modest farmhouse in Wilkie, Sask.

Macleans

Father Admits to Drowning Kids

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on March 29, 1999. Partner content is not updated.

As soon as she heard the news, Katharina (Tina) Marlatt felt sick, and suspicious. It was the day of the drowning deaths of her former boyfriend Thomas Dewald's two children, Christopher, 12, and Jennifer, 10. They died on Aug.

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Corner Gas

Corner Gas is a CTV sitcom created by comedian Brent Butt that ran for six seasons from 2004 to 2009. It is considered one of Canada’s most popular and influential TV comedies. Focusing on the oddball residents of the fictional town of Dog River, SaskatchewanCorner Gas was an instant hit when it debuted in early 2004, drawing an average of 1 million viewers per episode. Known for its low-key mix of quirky characters, deadpan wit and folksy rural charm, the show repeatedly broke audience records for a Canadian-made scripted television comedy. It won four Directors Guild of Canada Awards, nine Canadian Comedy Awards, five Writer’s Guild of Canada Screenwriting Awards and seven Gemini Awards, including three for Best Comedy Series. It has continued as an animated series, Corner Gas Animated, since 2018.  

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Corporation Law

A corporation is an artificial entity created by or under the laws of a state. Corporation law (also referred to as company law) is the body of law that governs the formation, governance and dissolution of corporations. The corporation is the dominant form of business organization in Canada.