Science & Technology | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • List

    30 Scientists

    ​To celebrate its 30th anniversary, The Canadian Encyclopedia created 30 lists of 30 things that make us proud to be Canadian, from famous people and historic events, to iconic foods and influential artists.

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  • Article

    Abraham Gesner

     Abraham Gesner, geologist, author, chemist, inventor (b near Cornwallis, NS 2 May 1797; d at Halifax, NS 29 Apr 1864). Gesner invented kerosene oil and, because of his patents for distilling bituminous material, was a founder of the modern Petroleum Industry.

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    Abraham Groves

    Abraham Groves, physician (b at Peterborough, Canada W 8 Sept 1847; d at Fergus, Ont 12 May 1935). After graduating from the Toronto School of Medicine in 1871, Groves practised in Fergus for 60 years.

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    Adélard Raymond

    Adélard Raymond, pilot, businessman and politician (born 10 July 1889 in Saint-Stanislas-de-Kostka, QC; died 23 February 1962 in Montreal, QC). Raymond was a French-Canadian pilot who served in the First World War and then in the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) from 1934 to 1945. He was the second French Canadian to be appointed air vice-marshal. Raymond was also involved in the hotel industry and in various commercial operations. He was elected mayor of Senneville, on the west island of Montreal, serving from June 1951 to June 1959.

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    Adrien Pouliot

    Adrien Pouliot, engineer and mathematician (b at Saint-Jean, Île d'Orléans 4 Jan 1896: d at Québec City 1980). After completing his cours classique at the Séminaire de Québec, he entered the École Polytechnique de Montréal earning a BA in applied science in 1915.

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    Agnes C. Higgins

    Agnes Charlotte Higgins (née Quamme), CM, nutritionist (born 18 June 1911 in Finley, North Dakota; died 27 August 1985 in Montreal, QC). Higgins began working at the Montreal Diet Dispensary in 1948 and was the Executive Director from 1959 until her retirement in 1981. She is best known for developing the “Higgins Method,” a nutritional program designed to help pregnant women improve their health and deliver healthy babies. Higgins’ influence on nutrition education extended throughout Canada, North America and much of the world. (See also Childbirth in Canada.)

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    Alan Newton Campbell

    Alan Newton Campbell, professor of chemistry (b at Halifax, Eng 29 Oct 1899; d at Winnipeg 10 Nov 1987). After receiving a doctorate from King's College, London, Campbell became assistant professor of chemistry at the University of Manitoba in 1930.

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    Albert Edward Litherland

    Albert Edward Litherland, "Ted," nuclear physicist (b at Wallasey, Eng 12 Mar 1928). Ted Litherland received a BSc in 1949 and a PhD in 1955 from the U of Liverpool. He was a National Research Council Fellow (1953-55) and a career scientist (1955-66) with Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.

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    Albert Peter Low

    Albert Peter Low, geologist, explorer (b at Montréal 24 May 1861; d at Ottawa 9 Oct 1942). Low joined the Geological Survey of Canada on graduation from McGill. The Québec-Labrador border was eventually defined on the basis of his 1893-95 explorations.

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    Alejandro Malaspina

    Alejandro Malaspina, explorer (b at Mulazzo, Italy 5 Nov 1754; d at Pontremoli, Italy 9 Apr 1810). Born to an illustrious but impoverished family, Malaspina entered the Spanish naval service. In 1784 he sailed around the world in the frigate Astrea.

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    Alexander Edgar Douglas

    Alexander Edgar Douglas, physicist (b at Melfort, Sask 12 Apr 1916; d at Ottawa 26 July 1981). Educated at the University of Saskatchewan and Pennsylvania State University, he joined the National Research Council's physics division in 1941.

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    Alexander Graham Bell

    Alexander Graham Bell, teacher of the deaf, inventor, scientist (born 3 March 1847 in Edinburgh, Scotland; died 2 August 1922 near Baddeck, NS). Alexander Graham Bell is generally considered second only to Thomas Alva Edison among 19th- and 20th-century inventors. Although he is best known as the inventor of the first practical telephone, he also did innovative work in other fields, including aeronautics, hydrofoils and wireless communication (the “photophone”). Moreover, Bell himself considered his work with the deaf to be his most important contribution. Born in Scotland, he emigrated to Canada in 1870 with his parents. Bell married American Mabel Hubbard in 1877 and became a naturalized American citizen in 1882. From the mid-1880s, he and his family spent their summers near Baddeck on Cape Breton Island, where they built a large home, Beinn Bhreagh. From then on, Bell divided his time and his research between the United States and Canada. He died and was buried at Baddeck in 1922.

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    Alexander Graham Bell, Aviation Pioneer

    Although Alexander Graham Bell is most famously credited as the inventor of the telephone, he also coached what was arguably the world’s most advanced aviation team of the early 20th century.

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    Alexander Murray

    Alexander Murray, geologist, explorer (b at Crieff, Scot 2 June 1810; d there 18 Dec 1884). Murray served in the Royal Navy 1824-35, and then in 1837 immigrated with his young bride to Woodstock, Upper Canada.

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    Alexander Thomas Cameron

    Alexander Thomas Cameron, biochemist (b at London, Eng 1882; d at Winnipeg 25 Sept 1947). Educated in chemistry at University of Edinburgh, Cameron came to University of Manitoba as lecturer of physiology and remained there (except for WWI service in France) until his death.

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