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List

30 Scientists

​To celebrate its 30th anniversary, The Canadian Encyclopedia created 30 lists of 30 things that make us proud to be Canadian, from famous people and historic events, to iconic foods and influential artists.

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Abraham Gesner

 Abraham Gesner, geologist, author, chemist, inventor (b near Cornwallis, NS 2 May 1797; d at Halifax, NS 29 Apr 1864). Gesner invented kerosene oil and, because of his patents for distilling bituminous material, was a founder of the modern Petroleum Industry.

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Abraham Groves

Abraham Groves, physician (b at Peterborough, Canada W 8 Sept 1847; d at Fergus, Ont 12 May 1935). After graduating from the Toronto School of Medicine in 1871, Groves practised in Fergus for 60 years.

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Adrien Pouliot

Adrien Pouliot, engineer and mathematician (b at Saint-Jean, Île d'Orléans 4 Jan 1896: d at Québec City 1980). After completing his cours classique at the Séminaire de Québec, he entered the École Polytechnique de Montréal earning a BA in applied science in 1915.

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Alan Newton Campbell

Alan Newton Campbell, professor of chemistry (b at Halifax, Eng 29 Oct 1899; d at Winnipeg 10 Nov 1987). After receiving a doctorate from King's College, London, Campbell became assistant professor of chemistry at the University of Manitoba in 1930.

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Albert Edward Litherland

Albert Edward Litherland, "Ted," nuclear physicist (b at Wallasey, Eng 12 Mar 1928). Ted Litherland received a BSc in 1949 and a PhD in 1955 from the U of Liverpool. He was a National Research Council Fellow (1953-55) and a career scientist (1955-66) with Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.

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Albert Peter Low

Albert Peter Low, geologist, explorer (b at Montréal 24 May 1861; d at Ottawa 9 Oct 1942). Low joined the Geological Survey of Canada on graduation from McGill. The Québec-Labrador border was eventually defined on the basis of his 1893-95 explorations.

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Alejandro Malaspina

Alejandro Malaspina, explorer (b at Mulazzo, Italy 5 Nov 1754; d at Pontremoli, Italy 9 Apr 1810). Born to an illustrious but impoverished family, Malaspina entered the Spanish naval service. In 1784 he sailed around the world in the frigate Astrea.

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Alexander Edgar Douglas

Alexander Edgar Douglas, physicist (b at Melfort, Sask 12 Apr 1916; d at Ottawa 26 July 1981). Educated at the University of Saskatchewan and Pennsylvania State University, he joined the National Research Council's physics division in 1941.

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Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell, teacher of the deaf, inventor, scientist (born 3 March 1847 in Edinburgh, Scotland; died 2 August 1922 in Baddeck, NS). Alexander Graham Bell is generally considered second only to Thomas Alva Edison among 19th- and 20th-century inventors. Although he is best known as the inventor of the first practical telephone, he also did innovative work in other fields, including aeronautics, hydrofoils and wireless communication (the “photophone”). Moreover, Bell himself considered his work with the deaf to be his most important contribution. Born in Scotland, he emigrated to Canada in 1870 with his parents. Bell married American Mabel Hubbard in 1877 and became a naturalized American citizen in 1882. From the mid-1880s, he and his family spent their summers near Baddeck on Cape Breton Island, where they built a large home, Beinn Bhreagh. From then on, Bell divided his time and his research between the United States and Canada. He died and was buried at Baddeck in 1922.

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Alexander Murray

Alexander Murray, geologist, explorer (b at Crieff, Scot 2 June 1810; d there 18 Dec 1884). Murray served in the Royal Navy 1824-35, and then in 1837 immigrated with his young bride to Woodstock, Upper Canada.

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Alexander Thomas Cameron

Alexander Thomas Cameron, biochemist (b at London, Eng 1882; d at Winnipeg 25 Sept 1947). Educated in chemistry at University of Edinburgh, Cameron came to University of Manitoba as lecturer of physiology and remained there (except for WWI service in France) until his death.

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Alfred Savage

Alfred Savage, veterinarian, teacher, researcher (born 10 August 1889 in Montréal, Qc; died 14 January 1970 in Winnipeg).

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Alfred Schmitz Shadd

Alfred Schmitz Shadd, educator, physician, farmer, politician, pharmacist, editor, civic leader (born 1870 in Raleigh Township, Kent County, ON; died 1915 in Winnipeg, MB).

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Alice Wilson

Alice Evelyn Wilson, MBE, geologist, paleontologist (born 26 August 1881 in Cobourg, ON; died 15 April 1964 in Ottawa, ON). Educated at the Universities of Toronto and Chicago, Wilson spent her entire professional career, from 1909 to 1946, with the Geological Survey of Canada. She was Canada’s first female geologist and the recognized authority on the fossils and rock of the Ottawa-St. Lawrence Valley. While she repeatedly faced barriers as a woman in a profession dominated by men, Wilson was gradually recognized for her work through various honours, including becoming the first female Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1938.

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Alice Vibert Douglas

Alice Vibert Douglas, astronomer (b at Montréal 1894; d at Kingston Ont 2 July 1988). Douglas received her doctorate from McGill in 1926. During WWI she was engaged in war work in England and then studied at the Cambridge Observatory and the Cavendish Laboratory 1921-23.