Transportation | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Airport Architecture

    A new wave of construction was inspired by the formation of the Department of Transport in 1937 and the inauguration of Trans-Canada Airlines (now Air Canada) in 1937. Dorval Airport (1940-41) near Montréal represented the new breed of airports.

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    Alaska Highway

    The Alaska Highway was constructed from 1942 to 1943 during the Second World War. It went from Dawson Creek, British Columbia to Alaska.

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    Algoma Central Railway

    Algoma Central Railway was chartered in 1899 by Francis Hector Clergue as a "feeder line" to his industrial-resource empire at Sault Ste Marie.

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    Boundary Waters-Voyageur Waterway

    The Boundary Waters-Voyageur Waterway extends 250 km along the international boundary extending from the western tip of Lake Superior to Lac La Croix in Ontario's Quetico Provincial Park.

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    British Columbia Railway

    The British Columbia Railway was incorporated as the Pacific Great Eastern Railway in 1912 to build a line from North Vancouver to Prince George, where it was to link up with the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway.

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    Bruce Trail

    The Bruce Trail is a continuous, 740 km footpath on the Niagara Escarpment

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    Bus Transportation

    The word "bus," short for omnibus, refers to any self-propelled road vehicle capable of carrying more persons than a private automobile.

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    Canada Aviation and Space Museum

    The Canada Aviation and Space Museum has the most extensive aviation collection in Canada. Located in Ottawa, the museum focuses on the history of Canadian aviation in an international context. Its collection includes more than 130 aircraft and artifacts.

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    Canadian Government Railways

    Canadian Government RailwaysCanadian Government Railways was the descriptive name of all federally owned railways in Canada from about the 1880s until 1918, when its operations were combined with the recently nationalized CANADIAN NORTHERN RAILWAY; in the following year the CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS were incorporated to operate both companies. The Canadian Government Railways, entrusted to the CN for operation in 1923, still exists as a component of the CN and has 4 principal constituents: the Intercolonial,...

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    Canadian Pacific Railway

    The Canadian Pacific Railway company (CPR) was incorporated in 1881. Its original purpose was the construction of a transcontinental railway, a promise to British Columbia upon its entry into Confederation (see Railway History). The railway — completed in 1885 — connected Eastern Canada to British Columbia and played an important role in the development of the nation. Built in dangerous conditions by thousands of labourers, including 15,000 Chinese temporary workers, the railway facilitated communication and transportation across the country. Over its long history, the Canadian Pacific Railway diversified its operations. The company established hotels, shipping lines and airlines, and developed mining and telecommunications industries (see Shipping Industry; Air Transport Industry). In 2001, Canadian Pacific separated into five separate and independent companies, with Canadian Pacific Railway returning to its origins as a railway company. CP, as it is branded today, has over 22,500 km of track across Canada and the United States. It is a public company and it trades on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol CP. In 2020, CP reported $7.71 billion in total revenues. This is the full-length entry about the Canadian Pacific Railway. For a plain-language summary, please see The Canadian Pacific Railway (Plain-Language Summary).

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    Canals and Inland Waterways

    These 2 great journeys were first made just before the end of the 18th century, and by the same man. Alexander Mackenzie reached the mouth of the river which now bears his name in 1789, and was the first European to cross the North American continent (to Bella Coola) in 1793.

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    Champlain and Saint Lawrence Railroad

    The Champlain and Saint Lawrence Railroad (incorporated 1832), Canada's first railway, ran between La Prairie on the St Lawrence River and St Johns [ St-Jean ] on the Richelieu.

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    Cobourg and Peterborough Railway

    One of the 2 earliest railway charters granted in Canada, the Cobourg Rail Road Co was incorporated in 1834 to build a railway from Cobourg northward to Peterborough across Rice Lake. The project was shelved until 1846, when it was revived as the Cobourg and Rice Lake Plank Road and Ferry Co. Samuel Gore built his plank road the 17 km to the lake, but it barely survived the first 2 winters.

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    Confederation Bridge

    The Confederation Bridge is the longest bridge in the world crossing ice-covered water. The toll bridge spans a 12.9 km stretch of the Northumberland Strait connecting Borden-Carleton, Prince Edward Island, to Cape Jourimain, New Brunswick. Although the bridge would provide a faster and more reliable link to the mainland, the decision to proceed sparked heated debate on the Island. The $840-million bridge opened on 31 May 1997.

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    Contemporary Railways

    In the 4 decades following World War II, Canada's 2 major railways became major conglomerates, among the largest companies in Canada. During the 1950s and 1960s a number of major resource railways were completed.

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