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Religion and Spirituality of Indigenous Peoples in Canada
First Nation, Métis and Inuit religions in Canada vary widely and consist of complex social and cultural customs for addressing the sacred and the supernatural. The influence of Christianity — through settlers, missionaries and government policy — significantly altered life for Indigenous peoples. In some communities, this resulted in hybridized religious practices; while in others, European religion replaced traditional spiritual practices entirely. Though historically suppressed by colonial administrators and missionaries, especially from the late 19th- to mid-20th centuries, many contemporary Indigenous communities have revived, or continue to practice, traditional spirituality.
Sir Robert Falconer
Sir Robert Alexander Falconer, clergyman, scholar, educator (b at Charlottetown 10 Feb 1867; d at Toronto 4 Nov 1943). Falconer spent much of his youth in Trinidad, where his Presbyterian clergyman father had been posted.
Edward Farrer, journalist (b near Castlebar?, Ire; d at Ottawa 27 Apr 1916). An outstanding craftsman and promoter of Canada-US union, he was said to have studied for the priesthood in Rome before coming to Canada about 1870.
Arthur Evans"Slim" (b at Toronto 1890; d at Vancouver 1944). Slim Evans was a colourful socialist and trade union organizer who played the leading role in organizing the On to Ottawa Trek of 1935.
Sandra Birdsell (née Sandra Bartlette), CM, Mennonite-Métis, short-story writer, novelist (born 22 April 1942 in Hamiota, MB). Birdsell’s fiction often investigates the lives of small-town characters, especially women. She has written novels, plays, radio dramas and scripts for television and film. Appointed a Member of the Order of Canada in 2010, Birdsell has been nominated for the Governor General’s Literary Award for English Language Fiction three times, and for the Scotiabank Giller Prize in 2001.
Jean-Baptiste L'Heureux (b at L'Acadie, LC 25 June 1831; d at Midnapore, Alta 19 Mar 1919). L'Heureux studied for the priesthood but was never ordained; a tradition maintains that he was expelled from the Séminaire de St-Hyacinthe for a criminal offence.
Annie Langstaff, née MacDonald, feminist, legal scholar, aviatrix (b at Alexandria, Ont 1887; d at Montréal 29 June 1975).
Jeannette Corbiere Lavell
Jeannette Vivian Corbiere Lavell (called Keewednanung, “North Star” in the Anishinaabe language), CM, activist, educator and community worker (born 21 June 1942 in Wikwemikong, ON). Corbiere Lavell, an Anishinaabe (Ojibwe) woman, was one of several Indigenous women who brought increased public awareness to the gendered discrimination that First Nations women faced because of status law, namely section 12(1)(b) of the Indian Act. Her efforts were central to revising patriarchal (male-dominated) aspects of Canadian legal code.
Patrick Lenihan, trade unionist (b at Kanturk, Ire 11 Apr 1903; d at Calgary 4 Mar 1981). He was a member of the Sinn Féin movement engaged in rebellious activities against British rule in Ireland. In the 1930s he organized workers, farmers and unemployed throughout Alberta.
Grace Annie Lockhart
Grace Annie Lockhart, pioneer of women's university education (b at Saint John 22 Feb 1855; d at Charlottetown 18 May 1916).
Thomas D'Arcy McGee
Thomas D’Arcy McGee, journalist, politician, poet (born 13 April 1825 in Carlingford, County Louth, Republic of Ireland; died 7 April 1868 in Ottawa, ON). Thomas D’Arcy McGee was dedicated to the cause of Irish national liberation. This pushed him towards revolutionary anti-British doctrine in his early years. However, he matured to become a staunch defender of British constitutional monarchy and a Father of Confederation. He was an advocate for minority rights at a time when the politics of ethnic and religious identity were intensely fraught. He was an incredibly eloquent public speaker and a passionate advocate for Canadian interests. However, his political transformation ultimately damaged his popularity with Irish nationalists, particularly the Fenians. He was assassinated in 1868.
Joseph-François Lafitau, priest, Jesuit missionary, legal philosopher (b at Bordeaux, France 1681; d there 3 July 1746).
Jérôme Lalemant, Jesuit missionary (b at Paris, France 27 Apr 1593; d at Québec City 26 Jan 1673), brother of Charles Lalemant. He arrived in Canada in 1638 and was named superior of the Huron mission.
George Lane, rancher (b near Des Moines, Iowa 6 Mar 1856; d at Bar U Ranch, near Pekisko, Alta 24 Sept 1925). Lane came to the Canadian West from Montana in 1883 and was hired as a ranch foreman by the North West Cattle Co.
Charles Lalemant, Jesuit missionary, first superior of the Jesuits at Québec (b at Paris, France 17 Nov 1587; d there 18 Nov 1674), brother of Jérôme Lalemant.
An ardent supporter of building the CPR in 1872, he was sent as an envoy to Europe by the Canadian government in 1885 and the Québec government in 1890. In 1888 Premier Honoré MERCIER appointed him deputy minister of agriculture and colonization.
Albert Lacombe, Oblate priest, missionary (b at St-Sulpice, LC 28 Feb 1827; d at Midnapore, near Calgary 16 Dec 1916).
Gustave Lamarche, priest, dramatist (b at Montréal 17 July 1895; d 27 Aug 1987).
Ksan is a reconstructed Gitksan (Tsimshian) Aboriginal village located at the junction of the Skeena and Bulkley rivers in Hazelton, BC.