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Article

Val-des-Sources (Asbestos)

Val-des-Sources (formerly Asbestos), Quebec, incorporated as a village in 1899 and as a town in 1937, population 6,786 (2016 census), 7,096 (2011 census). The town of Val-des-Sources is located in the Eastern Townships region, 53 km north of Sherbrooke and 58 km southeast of Drummondville. Originally called Asbestos, the town was named after the mineral mined there from 1881 to 2011. During that time, Asbestos produced much of the world’s supply of the asbestos mineral, which is now banned in many countries because of its negative health effects. Asbestos was renamed Val-des-Sources in December 2020. Val-des-Sources is located on ancestral Abenaki lands. The land is unceded and is considered Indigenous territory.

Article

Fort McMurray

Fort McMurray, Alberta, unincorporated population centre, population 61,374 (2011c), 47,705 (2006c). Fort McMurray is the largest community in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (RMWB). It is technically known as the municipality’s “Urban Service Area” and colloquially known as “Fort Mac.” The community located near the confluence of the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers in northeastern Alberta, near the centre of the vast Athabasca oil sands deposit. Originally incorporated as a city in 1980, in 1995 Fort McMurray merged with much of the surrounding area — collectively known as Improvement District No. 143 — to create the RMWB. At 63,783 km2, the municipality is the largest in North America in terms of size, accounting for nearly 10 per cent of the province’s total area. In May 2016, Fort McMurray experienced one of the worst forest fires in Canadian history. More than 80,000 residents were evacuated and approximately 2,400 structures — about 10 per cent of the city — were destroyed.

Article

Vancouver Chinatown

Vancouver's Chinatown features a distinctive hybrid of architectural styles that combines Chinese regional architecture with locally established Western motifs. The main streets in Chinatown follow a traditional Western grid pattern, while the north side is distinguished by interior courtyards, alleyways and façades that face both lanes and streets.

Article

Tsiigehtchic

Tsiigehtchic, Northwest Territories, population 187 (2019). Tsiigehtchic is located at the confluence of the  Mackenzie and Arctic Red rivers. It is home to the Gwichya Gwich’in First Nation (“people of the flat lands”) who speak an Athapaskan language (see Indigenous Languages in Canada). Formerly known as Arctic Red River, the community’s name was changed to Tsiigehtchic (“at the mouth of iron river”) in 1994. The community is on the Dempster Highway. It is accessible by summer ferry across the Mackenzie River and in winter by ice road. Tsiigehtchic is one of four communities in the Gwich’in Settlement Region. The region is an area created by the Gwich’in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement (1992). The other three communities in the region are AklavikFort McPherson and Inuvik. (See also Dinjii Zhuh (Gwich'in).)

Article

Toronto

Toronto, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1834, population 2,731,571 (2016 census), 2,615,060 (2011 census). Toronto is Ontario’s capital city, Canada’s largest municipality and the fourth largest city in North America. It is made up of the former cities of Toronto, North York, Scarborough, York and Etobicoke, and the former borough of East York. The city is home to a large immigrant population, and is a national and international hub for finance, communications and cultural life.

Article

Reserves in Nova Scotia

There are 13 First Nation communities in Nova Scotia. Spread over 42 reserves and settlements, these communities range from Acadia First Nation in the southwest to Membertou First Nation in northeastern Cape Breton. Of Nova Scotia’s 19,090 registered Mi’kmaq (in 2018), 10,878 live on reserve. Eight of these communities are on mainland Nova Scotia, and five are in Cape Breton. Their reserves vary in size from over 3,500 hectares to less than one, though almost every community has more than one land tract. Nova Scotia is unusual for the makeup of its on-reserve First Nation communities, in that they are all Mi’kmaq. In terms of the number of First Nation communities, Nova Scotia is comparable to New Brunswick (with 15 First Nations) and Yukon (18 First Nations). Other provinces, such as Ontario and British Columbia, have many more First Nation communities (127 and nearly 200, respectively), while those like Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador have significantly fewer (two and four, respectively).

Article

Chilliwack (BC)

Chilliwack, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1999, population 83,788 (2016 census), 77,936 (2011 census). The city of Chilliwack is located 100 km east of Vancouver on the south shore of the Fraser River. It is governed by a mayor and six councillors elected for four-year terms. The name is derived from the word Ts’elxwéyeqw. According to elder Albert Louie, in Halq’eméylem, the traditional language of the Stó:lō, the word means “going as far as you can go upriver” by canoe on the Chilliwack River.

Article

Pincher Creek

Pincher Creek, Alberta, incorporated as a town in 1906, population 3,642 (2016 census), 3,685 (2011 census). The town of Pincher Creek is located in southwestern Alberta at the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains. It was established in 1878 as a North-West Mounted Police post and farm on Pincher Creek. The creek received its name after a pair of pincers (a tool used to trim horses’ hooves) was found along its banks.

Article

Brossard

Brossard, Quebec, population 85,721 (2016 census), 79,273 (2011 census). Incorporated as a city in 1978, from 2002 to 2006 Brossard was a borough of Longueuil. Longueil was created by the amalgamation of eight distinct municipalities, including Brossard. In a 2004 referendum, Brossard residents voted to reconstitute their city. In 2006, Brossard again became its own municipality. Brossard is located on the South Shore of the St. Lawrence River, a short distance from the Champlain Bridge that links it to Montreal.

Article

Sparwood

Sparwood, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1966, population 3,784 (2016 census), 3,667 (2011 census). The District of Sparwood is located 32 km northeast of Fernie in the Elk River Valley, and on the traditional territory of the Ktunaxa people.

Article

Revelstoke

Revelstoke, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1899, population 7,547 (2016 census), 7,139 (2011 census). The city of Revelstoke is situated on the Columbia River between the Selkirk and Monashee mountains. It is on the Trans-Canada Highway at the western entrance to Rogers Pass and Mount Revelstoke and Glacier national parks. Revelstoke is located on the traditional territory of the Ktunaxa, Sinixt, Secwepemc and Okanagan peoples. (See also Interior Salish.)

Article

History of Acadia

Acadia’s history as a French-speaking colony stretches as far back as the early 17th century. The French settlers who colonized the land and coexisted alongside Indigenous peoples became called Acadians. Acadia was also the target of numerous wars between the French and the English. Ultimately, the colony fell under British rule. Many Acadians were subsequently deported away from Acadia. Over time, as a British colony and then as part of Canada, Acadians increasingly became a linguistic minority. Nonetheless, Acadians have strived to protect their language and identity throughout time.

Article

Salmon Arm

Salmon Arm, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 2005, population 17,706 (2016 census), 17,464 (2011 census). The city of Salmon Arm is located at the head of the southwestern arm of Shuswap Lake, also called Salmon Arm, 110 km east of Kamloops.

Article

Nakusp

Nakusp, British Columbia, incorporated as a village in 1964, population 1,605 (2016 census), 1,569 (2011 census). The village of Nakusp is located on the east shore of Upper Arrow Lake at the foot of the Selkirk Mountains. It is in the West Kootenay district of south-eastern British Columbia. Nakusp is located on the traditional territory of the Sinixt, Ktunaxa, Secwepemc and Okanagan peoples. (See also Interior Salish.) The name is derived from a Sinixt word, though its meaning is debated. One interpretation is that the name Nakusp comes from a word meaning “the bay behind the long point,” another is that it means, “closed-in” or “safe.”

Editorial

Editorial: William Lyon Mackenzie and the Rebellion in Upper Canada

At 8:00 p.m. on Monday, 4 December 1837, William Lyon Mackenzie set out by horse down Yonge Street to scout the route for his attack on Toronto. At the top of Gallows Hill (below St. Clair Ave.) he met Tory alderman John Powell, himself on patrol from the city. Mackenzie and his men took Powell prisoner. “Do you have a gun?” Mackenzie asked Powell. “No,” Powell replied. Mackenzie took his word as a gentleman and sent him back toward the rebel headquarters at Montgomery’s Tavern.

Article

Golden

Golden, British Columbia, incorporated as a town in 1957, population 3,708 (2016 census), 3,701 (2011 census). The town of Golden is located on the Columbia River at its confluence with the Kicking Horse River. It is situated 260 km west of Calgary, Alberta, between the Purcell Mountain Range and Glacier National Park to the west, and the Rocky Mountains and Yoho National Park to the east. Golden is located on the traditional territory of the Ktunaxa and Secwepemc people (see Interior Salish).

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