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British Columbia and Confederation

The colony of British Columbia was founded in 1858 in response to the Fraser River Gold Rush. (See also The Fraser River Gold Rush and the Founding of British Columbia.) The colony established representative government in 1864 and merged with the colony of Vancouver Island in 1866. In May 1868, Amor De Cosmos formed the Confederation League to bring responsible government to BC and to join Confederation. In September 1868, the Confederation League passed 37 resolutions outlining the terms for a union with the Dominion of Canada. The terms were passed by both the BC assembly and the federal Parliament in 1871. The colony joined Canada as the country’s sixth province on 20 July 1871. The threat of American annexation, embodied by the Alaska purchase of 1867, and the promise of a railway linking BC to the rest of Canada, were decisive factors.

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Corner Brook

Corner Brook, NL, incorporated as a city in 1956, population 19 886 (2011c), 20 083 (2006c). The City of Corner Brook is located on Humber Arm of the Bay of Islands on Newfoundland's western coast.

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Quinte West

Long occupied by Indigenous peoples, at the time of first European contact, the Mississauga (Ojibwa) occupied the region.

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Bonavista

Bonavista, NL, incorporated as a town in 1964, population 3589 (2011c), 3764 (2006c). The Town of Bonavista is located near Cape Bonavista on Newfoundland's northeast coast.

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Sillery

Sillery was the first reserve created by Europeans for Aboriginal peoples in what is now Canada. It was established in 1637 near Québec City. It was funded by a French nobleman, Noël Brûlart de Sillery, in response to an advertisement placed by Father Paul Le Jeune in the Jesuit Relations.

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Cold Lake

Cold Lake, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 2000, population 14,961 (2016 census), 13,839 (2011 census). The city of Cold Lake is located on a lake of the same name, 290 km northeast of Edmonton. The  Cree called the lake “Kinosoo” or “big fish” after a Cree legend. European settlers named the lake for its deep, cold water.

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Newfoundland and Labrador and Confederation

Attempts to bring Newfoundland into Confederation in the 1860s and 1890s were met with lukewarm interest in the colony. In 1934, Newfoundland was in bankruptcy during the Great Depression. It suspended responsible government and accepted an unelected Commission Government directed by Britain. In a 1948 referendum, Newfoundlanders were given the choice to either continue with the Commission Government, join Canada, or seek a return to responsible government as an independent dominion. The independence option won the first vote. But the Confederation option won a run-off vote with 52.3 per cent support. The British and Canadian parliaments approved of the union. Newfoundland became Canada’s 10th province on 31 March 1949. In 2001, the province’s name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Port Moody

Port Moody, BC, incorporated as a city in 1913, population 32 975 (2011c), 27 512 (2006c). The City of Port Moody lies at the head of Burrard Inlet, 20 km east of Vancouver. Port Moody's foreshore contains abundant evidence of pre-European occupation by the CENTRAL COAST SALISH peoples.

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Placentia

Placentia, NL, incorporated as a town in 1945, population 3643 (2011c), 3898 (2006c). The Town of Placentia is located on PLACENTIA BAY on the west coast of the AVALON PENINSULA.

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Grand Falls-Windsor

Grand Falls-Windsor, NL, incorporated as a town in 1991, population 13 725 (2011c), 13 558 (2006c). The Town of Grand Falls-Windsor is comprised of two towns, which were amalgamated in 1991. It is located in central Newfoundland on the Exploits River.

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Magog

In 1888 the village of Magog separated from the municipality of Magog Township (established 1855) and soon incorporated as a town.

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Kamloops

Kamloops, BC, incorporated as a city in 1893, population 90,280 (2016 census), 85,678 (2011 census). The City of Kamloops amalgamated with North Kamloops in 1967 and in 1973 with surrounding residential areas to form the present city of Kamloops. It is located in southern British Columbia 355 km northeast of Vancouver via the Coquihalla highway. The city is situated at the confluence of the North and South Thompson rivers near their entrance into Kamloops Lake. The Kamloops Reserve 1, home to some members of the Tk'emlúps te Secwépemc First Nation, is adjacent to the city, on the northeast corner of the river junction.

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Sackville

Sackville, NB, incorporated as a town in 1903, population 5558 (2011c), 5411 (2006c). Sackville is situated 50 km southeast of Moncton on the Tantramar River, near the Nova Scotia border.

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Sept-Îles

The first permanent European settlement dates from 1651: the Ange-Gardien mission founded by Father Jean de Quen. A trading and fishing post set up there in 1676 by Louis Jolliet was ceded in the 19th century to the Hudson's Bay Company.

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Saint-Lambert

Saint-Lambert, Quebec, population 21,861 (2016 census), 21,555 (2011 census). Saint-Lambert was settled beginning in the 17th century. It was first incorporated as a city in 1921 and reincorporated in 2006. Saint-Lambert was amalgamated into the city of Longueuil from 2002 until 2006 when it regained its municipal status. It is located along the South Shore of the St. Lawrence River across from Montreal, and is connected to that city by the Victoria bridge (completed 1859).

Saint-Lambert is situated on the ancestral lands of the Kanyen’kehà:ka. The land remains unceded and is considered Indigenous territory.

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Terrace

Terrace, BC, incorporated as a city in 1987, population 11 486 (2011c), 11 320 (2006c).

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Merritt

Merritt, BC, incorporated as a city in 1981, population 7113 (2011c), 6998 (2006c). The City of Merritt is located in the Nicola Valley of south-central British Columbia, at the junction of the Coldwater and Nicola rivers, 88 km southof Kamloops on the COQUIHALLA HIGHWAY.

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Ashcroft

Ashcroft, BC, incorporated as a village in 1952, population 1628 (2011c), 1664 (2006c). The Village of Ashcroft is situated on a flat bench above the Thompson River in the dry belt of the interior of southern British Columbia, about 90 km west of Kamloops.

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Dundas

Dundas, Ont, Urban Community within the city of Hamilton. Dundas is located at the west end of Lake Ontario and is situated between 2 faces of the Niagara Escarpment.