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Vancouver Feature: “China-town” Develops on Old Dupont
In 1887, a Vancouver newsman noted the concentration of Chinese residences and businesses at the south end of Carrall Street at Dupont — now Pender Street — near the edge of False Creek . The development of “China-town,” as he called it, was recent, but Chinese had been Vancouver pioneers from the start.
Fur Trade Routes
Throughout the period of the historical fur trade, water routes were the natural “highways” of the voyageurs and coureurs des bois. Canoes (later boats — principally York boats) were the principal vehicles. The location of trading posts depended on the presence of Indigenous peoples willing and able to trade, and on the ease of transportation to and from them.
Reserves in Nova Scotia
There are 13 First Nation communities in Nova Scotia. Spread over 42 reserves and settlements, these communities range from Acadia First Nation in the southwest to Membertou First Nation in northeastern Cape Breton. Of Nova Scotia’s 19,090 registered Mi’kmaq (in 2018), 10,878 live on reserve. Eight of these communities are on mainland Nova Scotia, and five are in Cape Breton. Their reserves vary in size from over 3,500 hectares to less than one, though almost every community has more than one land tract. Nova Scotia is unusual for the makeup of its on-reserve First Nation communities, in that they are all Mi’kmaq. In terms of the number of First Nation communities, Nova Scotia is comparable to New Brunswick (with 15 First Nations) and Yukon (18 First Nations). Other provinces, such as Ontario and British Columbia, have many more First Nation communities (127 and nearly 200, respectively), while those like Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador have significantly fewer (two and four, respectively).
Fraser River Lowland
The Fraser River Lowland is a triangular area in southwestern British Columbia. The eastern apex of the triangle is at Hope, about 160 km inland from the Strait of Georgia. From here, the lowland broadens to the west to a width of about 50 km. The international boundary between British Columbia and Washington State crosses the southwestern part of the lowland. The Coast Mountains form the northern boundary of the delta-lowland. The Fraser River Lowland is the largest area of level land with suitable agricultural soils in coastal British Columbia.
Chilliwack, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1999, population 83,788 (2016 census), 77,936 (2011 census). The city of Chilliwack is located 100 km east of Vancouver on the south shore of the Fraser River. It is governed by a mayor and six councillors elected for four-year terms. The name is derived from the word Ts’elxwéyeqw. According to elder Albert Louie, in Halq’eméylem, the traditional language of the Stó:lō, the word means “going as far as you can go upriver” by canoe on the Chilliwack River.
Claresholm, Alberta, incorporated as a town in 1905, population 3,780 (2016 census), 3,758 (2011 census). The town of Claresholm is located approximately 65 km northwest of Lethbridge. The name of the town was chosen by John Niblick, a superintendent of the Canadian Pacific Railway, in honour of his wife.
Pincher Creek, Alberta, incorporated as a town in 1906, population 3,642 (2016 census), 3,685 (2011 census). The town of Pincher Creek is located in southwestern Alberta at the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains. It was established in 1878 as a North-West Mounted Police post and farm on Pincher Creek. The creek received its name after a pair of pincers (a tool used to trim horses’ hooves) was found along its banks.
Kainai Nation (Blood Tribe)
The Kainai (G-ai-nah) Nation, otherwise known as the Blood Tribe, is a First Nation based in southern Alberta. Kainai Nation holds two reserves, Blood 148 and Blood 148A. Blood 148, the nation’s primary reserve, is the largest First Nation reserve by area in Canada. It covers 1,342.9 km², and is located southwest of the city of Lethbridge, north of the town of Cardston, and east of Pincher Creek. The nation’s second reserve is known as a “timber limit” and is used for hunting and fishing. As of 2020, there are 8,517 people living on the primary reserve, making it one of the most populous reserves in Canada. In total, Kainai Nation has 12,693 registered band members. (See also Reserves in Alberta.)
Inuit Experiences at Residential School
Residential schools were government-sponsored religious schools created to assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture. Schools in the North were run by missionaries for nearly a century before the federal government began to open new, so-called modern institutions in the 1950s. This was less than a decade after a Special Joint Committee (see Indigenous Suffrage) found that the system was ineffectual. The committee’s recommendations led to the eventual closure of residential schools across the country.
Brossard, Quebec, population 85,721 (2016 census), 79,273 (2011 census). Incorporated as a city in 1978, from 2002 to 2006 Brossard was a borough of Longueuil. Longueil was created by the amalgamation of eight distinct municipalities, including Brossard. In a 2004 referendum, Brossard residents voted to reconstitute their city. In 2006, Brossard again became its own municipality. Brossard is located on the South Shore of the St. Lawrence River, a short distance from the Champlain Bridge that links it to Montreal.
Revelstoke, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1899, population 7,547 (2016 census), 7,139 (2011 census). The city of Revelstoke is situated on the Columbia River between the Selkirk and Monashee mountains. It is on the Trans-Canada Highway at the western entrance to Rogers Pass and Mount Revelstoke and Glacier national parks. Revelstoke is located on the traditional territory of the Ktunaxa, Sinixt, Secwepemc and Okanagan peoples. (See also Interior Salish.)
Nakusp, British Columbia, incorporated as a village in 1964, population 1,605 (2016 census), 1,569 (2011 census). The village of Nakusp is located on the east shore of Upper Arrow Lake at the foot of the Selkirk Mountains. It is in the West Kootenay district of south-eastern British Columbia. Nakusp is located on the traditional territory of the Sinixt, Ktunaxa, Secwepemc and Okanagan peoples. (See also Interior Salish.) The name is derived from a Sinixt word, though its meaning is debated. One interpretation is that the name Nakusp comes from a word meaning “the bay behind the long point,” another is that it means, “closed-in” or “safe.”
Golden, British Columbia, incorporated as a town in 1957, population 3,708 (2016 census), 3,701 (2011 census). The town of Golden is located on the Columbia River at its confluence with the Kicking Horse River. It is situated 260 km west of Calgary, Alberta, between the Purcell Mountain Range and Glacier National Park to the west, and the Rocky Mountains and Yoho National Park to the east. Golden is located on the traditional territory of the Ktunaxa and Secwepemc people (see Interior Salish).
Little Burgundy and Montreal's Black English-Speaking Community
Little Burgundy is a neighbourhood in the southwest borough of Montreal, Quebec. It is the historical home of the city’s Black English-speaking, working-class community (see also Black Canadians). Montreal's early Black settlement was comprised mainly of African Americans who lived in the Faubourg (French for "suburb") of St. Antoine — a neighbourhood that is now known as Little Burgundy. The settlement dates to the emergence of the railway companies in the mid- to late 19th century and the era of the Black sleeping car porters.
Music in Rimouski
City situated on the south shore of the St Lawrence River, 300 kilometres east of Quebec City. The name, meaning 'moose sanctuary,' comes from the Micmac language.