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Brampton

Brampton, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 593,638 (2016 census), 523,906 (2011 census). The city of Brampton was created by the amalgamation of the Town of Brampton, the southern half of Chinguacousy Township, and portions of the Town of Mississauga and Toronto Gore Township. Located northwest of Toronto, Brampton is part of the Regional Municipality of Peel. It is located within the Credit and Humber River watersheds.

Brampton is situated on the traditional territory of the Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabe, including the Mississauga. The land is covered by the Ajetance Purchase (1818).

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Paddle Prairie Metis Settlement

The Paddle Prairie Metis Settlement is one of eight Métis Settlements in Alberta. The community is located in the northwest corner of the province near the Peace River. It is 1,739 km2, or roughly two and a half times the size of Edmonton. This makes Paddle Prairie the largest of the eight settlements in terms of area. It also makes it larger than the largest First Nation reserve in both the province and the country. (Blood 148, held by Kainai Nation in southern Alberta, is 1,342.9 km2.) The population of Paddle Prairie is 536, according to the settlement’s 2019 census. In addition, people may be a member of the settlement but live elsewhere.

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Largest Cities in Canada by Population

Since the Second World War, Canadians have become increasingly urban, living primarily in cities. In an attempt to keep housing affordable, local governments have needed to balance burgeoning borders with urban density. Canada’s ten largest cities offer a glimpse at the many approaches and issues.

All populations are from the 2016 Canadian census and reflect the cities proper, as opposed to the larger census metropolitan area.

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National Parks of Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

Canada has 48 national parks. They were created and are run by the federal government. The national parks cover a vast amount of land — about 340,000 km2. This is about 3 per cent of Canada’s landmass. National parks serve two purposes. The first purpose is to preserve and protect nature. The second purpose is to give Canadians the chance to enjoy some of the country’s most beautiful and important natural settings. Millions of Canadians visit national parks every year.

(This article is a plain-language summary of National Parks. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, National Parks of Canada.)

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Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory

Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory is a reserve located on the eastern peninsula of Manitoulin Island in Ontario. The reserve is held by the Wiikwemkoong First Nation, which is composed of Ojibwe, Odawa and Potawatomi peoples. Together, these nations form the Three Fires Confederacy. As an unceded reserve, Wiikwemkoong has not relinquished its land through treaty or other means. (See also Reserves in Ontario.)

The Wiikwemkoong First Nation has a registered population of 8,330, with an on-reserve population of 3,208 (2020). Formerly known as Manitoulin Island Unceded Indian Reserve, the reserve changed its name to Wiikwemkong Unceded Indian Reserve in 1968 when it amalgamated with Point Grondine First Nation and South Bay First Nation. The name was changed again, in 2014, to its current name, though the federal government still refers to the reserve as the Wikwemikong Unceded Reserve.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes are the largest group in a chain of large lakes (including WinnipegAthabascaGreat Slave and Great Bear) that lies along the southern boundary of the Canadian Shield. From west to east the Great Lakes comprise lakes Superior, Michigan (entirely in the US), HuronSt. ClairErie and Ontario. They have a total area of approximately 244,100 km2 and drop from 183 m above sea level at Lake Superior to 74 m at Lake Ontario — the most dramatic drop occurring at Niagara Falls. Lake St Clair, while not properly a “great lake,” is considered part of this Laurentian chain.

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Elsipogtog First Nation

Elsipogtog (pronounced El-see-buk-tuk) First Nation is a Mi’kmaq community about 91 km northwest of Moncton, New Brunswick. Known for many years as Big Cove, in 2003 the First Nation officially changed its name to Elsipogtog, meaning “river of fire.” However, they are still commonly referred to as Big Cove. Community members largely speak Mi’kmaw and English.

As of 2021, Elsipogtog has 3,491 registered members, 2,689 of whom live on the First Nation’s reserve. The reserve, also known as Elsipogtog, is still referred to as Richibucto 15 in some official documents. It encompasses 19.56 km2.

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Resistance and Residential Schools

Residential schools were government-sponsored religious schools that many Indigenous children were forced to attend. They were established to assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture. Indigenous parents and children did not simply accept the residential-school system. Indigenous peoples fought against – and engaged with – the state, schools and other key players in the system. For the duration of the residential-school era, parents acted in the best interests of their children and communities. The children responded in ways that would allow them to survive.

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Mount Royal

Mount Royal is a short mountain with a wide base covering ten square kilometres. It is close to the geographic centre of the Island of Montreal. Mount Royal is Montreal’s defining physical feature and a protected site; it was designated a Historic and Natural District by the government of Quebec in 2005. By law, new buildings in Montreal may not be taller than Mount Royal. The mountain occupies a central position, not only in the urban landscape of the city of Montreal, but also in its history, culture and society.

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Okanagan Lake

Okanagan Lake is located in the southern interior of British Columbia and is the largest lake in the Okanagan Valley.

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Montreal Metro

The Montreal metro opened on 14 October 1966. The second Canadian subway system after Toronto’s, which opened in 1954, the Montreal metro was the first subway in North America to run on rubber tires instead of metal wheels. Extensions to the Montreal metro were built on Montreal Island over the two decades after it opened, and then to the city of Laval, on the island of Île Jésus, during the 2000s. The system runs entirely underground, and each station has a distinct architecture and design. The Montreal metro consists of four lines running a total of 71 km and serving 68 stations. In 2018, its passengers made more than 383 million trips.

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Red Bay Archaeological Site

Red Bay, located on the north shore of the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador, is an archaeological reference for the 16th-century transatlantic fishery, particularly for Basque whaling activities. After research into Spanish documents and archaeological finds on Saddle Island and under water, Red Bay was designated a historical site in 1978-79. In 2013, the whaling station at Red Bay was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Red Bay

Red Bay, NL, incorporated as a town in 1997, population 169 (2016 census), 194 (2011 census). The town of Red Bay is located on the Strait of Belle Isle, off Labrador’s south coast. Named for its prominent red cliffs, it was one of two major Basque whaling stations established in the 1540s. After research into Spanish documents and archaeological finds on Saddle Island and under water, Red Bay was designated a historical site in 1978-79 (see Red Bay Archaeological Site). In 2013, the whaling station at Red Bay was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Wauzhushk Onigum Nation

Wauzhushk Onigum Nation (pronounced Waa-JUSHK oh-KNEE-gum), commonly referred to as Rat Portage, is an Anishinaabe community based on the north shore of Lake of the Woods in northwestern Ontario. Wauzhushk Onigum’s primary reserve, Kenora 38B, is 22.3 km2. As of 2021, the First Nation has 802 registered members, 383 of whom live on this reserve. Wauzhushk Onigum is a member of Treaty 3, signed in 1873. The City of Kenora is 3 km northwest and is the closest service hub for the First Nation.

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Smallest Cities in Canada

If you look at a map of Canada, the number of place names can be overwhelming. Whether or not these places are considered municipalities depends on legislation specific to the province or territory in which they are located. Depending on the number of people who live there, municipalities may be called a number of names, including city, town, village or hamlet.

Most Canadian municipalities have thousands of residents. There are 11, however, that have 10 or fewer people.

This list is largely based on Statistics Canada’s 2016 census, as well as reliable information from other sources. It does not include “unorganized” communities, “designated places,” or reserves, as these are governed by larger municipalities, or in the case of reserves, the federal government.

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Cartography in Canada: 1500s

Most maps created in the 1500s that relate to Canada are manuscript compilations, often undated and anonymous. They were prepared by European cartographers rather than by explorers. Since cartographers had to work with available material, these maps are at times a perplexing mixture of new information and old, copied from unspecified sources. Any review of the sequence in which Canada was first mapped is therefore somewhat conjectural. (See also History of Cartography in Canada.)

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Trans Canada Trail

The Trans Canada Trail is over 27,000 km of land and waterways connecting every Canadian province and territory. Construction began in 1992 as part of Canada's 125th birthday celebrations. It was completed 25 years later, in 2017, when Canada turned 150. In 2016, the trail’s name changed to “The Great Trail.” However, in June 2021, the name reverted back to the original.