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Gravenhurst

Gravenhurst, Ont, incorporated as a town in 1887, population 11 640 (2011c), 11 046 (2006c). The Town of Gravenhurst is located at south end of Lake Muskoka, 170 km north of Toronto.

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Music in Sarnia

Ontario city settled in 1807. It was known first as Fort Rapids, later as Port Sarnia, and in 1856 it was incorporated as the town of Sarnia. It became a city in 1914. Its population was 49,033 in 1986.

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Landsat Island

A small island 20 km off the northeast Labrador coast, named in recognition of the fact that it was first detected on imagery from the satellite Landsat-1. This satellite, designed for Earth-monitoring, was the first of a continuing series launched by the US having transmissions received in Canada.

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Funk Island

Funk Island, 25 ha, is a flat, 15 m high, wedge-shaped granite island 800 m by 400 m lying 60 km off Newfoundland's northeast coast, east of FOGO ISLAND. The origin of the name is unknown, though it may have been inspired by the smell of the guano that covers much of the island.

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North Battleford

A new town site, named North Battleford, was laid out in 1905. The community grew rapidly with many businesses and residents abandoning the older community and moving to the new rail centre. By 1913 North Battleford was granted city status.

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Fairvale

Fairvale, NB, is a community located on the Kennebecasis River within the town of ROTHESAY. Settled in 1819, it remained a farming area until early in the 20th century.

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Espanola

Espanola, Ont, incorporated as a town in 1958, population 5364 (2011c), 5314 (2006c). The Town of Espanola is located 69 km west of Sudbury on the Spanish River.

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Esquimalt

Esquimalt, BC, incorporated as a district municipality in 1912, population 16 209 (2011c), 16 840 (2006c). The Township of Esquimalt is located on the southern tip of VANCOUVER ISLAND adjacent to VICTORIA.

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Petawawa

The township was surveyed in 1857, but it attracted few settlers until 1904, when the Canadian government chose it as the site for a new military camp. Camp PETAWAWA eventually grew to encompass large portions of 4 townships, and has become one of Canada's most important military bases.

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Fort Anne

For the next 40 years, the British at Fort Anne maintained a precarious position in the Acadian-dominated province and were frequently attacked by French and Indian raiding parties. The status of the fort declined with the founding of Halifax (1749) and the expulsion of the Acadians (1755).

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Burnaby

Burnaby, BC, incorporated as a city in 1992, population 223 218 (2011c),  202 799 (2006c). Burnaby adjoins Vancouver on the west, Coquitlam on the east and New Westminster on the southeast.

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Eskimo Lakes

Eskimo Lakes, 880 km2, lie along the southern edge of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, NWT, and drain into Liverpool Bay on the Beaufort Sea. They are tidal lakes, with tide heights averaging 2 m, and occupy a fault zone separating geological blocks.

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Estevan

The townsite was surveyed in 1892 where the Soo Line of the Canadian Pacific Railway crossed the river, and grew steadily from that date, largely because of its dual role as a trading and energy centre.

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Enderby

Enderby, BC, incorporated as a city in 1905, population 2932 (2011c), 2828 (2006c). The City of Enderby is located on the Shuswap River 13 km north of Armstrong and 19 km south of Salmon Arm.

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Foxe Basin

Foxe Basin is bordered on its eastern and northern sides by the coast of Baffin Island and in the west by the Melville Peninsula.

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Clayoquot Sound

Clayoquot Sound is a dramatically varied inlet of the Pacific Ocean nearly 100 km wide on the west coast of Vancouver Island (estimated area, water 784.25 km2; land including freshwater 2715.75 km2).

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Lake Nipigon

Later posts were established by the NWC and HBC, but none grew into major settlements. With its limited population, unspoiled environment and abundant fish and wildlife, the area is ideal for outdoor recreation.

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Ocean

The interplay of these ocean waters with freshwater runoff from land creates the conditions that support large biological production on Canada's continental shelves and embayments (see COASTAL LANDFORM; DRAINAGE BASIN).