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Africville

Africville was an African-Canadian village located just north of Halifax and founded around the mid-19th century. The City of Halifax demolished the once-prosperous seaside community in the 1960s in what many said was an act of racism. The mayor of the Halifax Regional Municipality apologized for the action in 2010. For many people, Africville represents the oppression faced by Black Canadians, and the efforts to right historic wrongs.

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Trails and Greenways in Canada

Canada was founded along the many waterways utilized by Indigenous peoples, early explorers, fur traders and pioneers. As Canada became a more developed nation, the automobile and roads began to dominate the landscape. Trails were almost forgotten, except in parks and other protected areas. Today, however, Canadians are using trails in increasing numbers. Trails are either managed by organizations such as parks, municipalities and First Nations, or unmanaged. As of 2010, there were 278,576 km of managed trails in Canada. This distance is roughly the equivalent of traversing the country, from Cape Spear, Newfoundland and Labrador, to the Yukon-Alaska border, 50 times. The province with the largest managed trail network is Quebec. Just over 27 per cent of all managed Canadian trails (77,030 km) are found there.

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Georgina

Georgina, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1986, population 45,418 (2016 census), 43,517 (2011 census). The townships of North Gwillimbury and Georgina were amalgamated in 1971 and incorporated as the town of Georgina in 1986. The town of Georgina includes the communities of Udora, Keswick, Sutton and Jackson’s Point. It is located on the south shore of Lake Simcoe, 67 km north of Toronto.

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Reserves in Ontario

There are 205 reserves in Ontario, held by 123 First Nations. In 2019, there were 218,451 registered Indians living in Ontario, 44 per cent of whom lived on reserves. Reserves in Ontario are held by Anishinaabe, Cree, Oji-Cree, Haudenosaunee, Delaware and Algonquin peoples. There are also a handful of First Nations in Ontario who, for a variety of reasons, do not have reserve land.

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Markham

Markham, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1971, population 328,966 (2016 census), 301,709 (2011 census). Markham is located immediately northeast of Toronto. It is one of nine municipalities that make up the Regional Municipality of York. The Rouge River cuts through the municipality diagonally, connecting to Rouge National Urban Park. Initially an agricultural community, Markham is now known for its technology businesses and ethnocultural diversity.

Markham is located on the traditional territory of the Huron WendatHaudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg.

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Geography of Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan is divided by two of Canada’s seven physiographic regions. These two regions are the Interior Plains and the Canadian Shield. The Canadian Shield is characterized by rugged rock exposures and many lakes. It also includes a sandy region south of Lake Athabasca. South of the Canadian Shield is the area commonly called the “grain belt.” It is characterized by level or gently rolling plains and fertile soils. Saskatchewan is known as one of the world’s great wheat producers.

On the western boundary and across the southwest corner is another plains region of generally higher altitudes. Its rolling and hilly terrain is distinct from that of the grain belt. The extreme southwest the province shares the Cypress Hills with Alberta. The Cypress Hills are the highest point of land in Canada between the Rocky Mountains and Labrador.

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Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is divided by three of Canada’s seven physiographic regions. These three regions are the Canadian Shield in Labrador, and the Appalachian and Eastern St. Lawrence Lowlands on the island of Newfoundland.

Labrador’s northern coastal region is mountainous, deeply fjorded, and grows only ground-level, subarctic vegetation. Its southern coast has a rugged, barren foreshore and a forested hinterland. The interior of Labrador is a well-forested, dissected plateau. Most of Labrador’s most-populous towns, including Happy-Valley Goose Bay and Labrador City, are located in its interior.

On the island of Newfoundland the west coast is dominated by the table-topped Long Range Mountains. The northeast coast, with its numerous bays, islands and headlands, fronts on the Atlantic Ocean from the Great Northern Peninsula to the Avalon Peninsula. Newfoundland’s southern coast has the deeply embayed characteristics of a submerged shoreline. The inland areas of the island are generally hilly and rugged. Shallow bogs and heath vegetation covers much of the land. Most of Newfoundland’s towns and cities are located in the bays and coves of the island’s west and northeast coasts.

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Reserves on Prince Edward Island

There are four reserves on Prince Edward Island, held by two First Nations. Three of these reserves, Morell, Rocky Point and Scotchfort, are held by Abegweit First Nation, while Lennox Island is held by Lennox Island First Nation. PEI is just one of two provinces, the other being Nova Scotia, that is part of the traditional territory of only one Indigenous people. In both cases, it is the Mi'kmaq. Of PEI’s 1,405 registered Mi'kmaq (2021), 615 live on the four reserves. The reserves vary in size from less than 1 km 2 to 5.4 km2. Both Lennox Island and Abegweit First Nations are headed by Chiefs, who are required to live on-reserve, and Councillors, who may live on- or off-reserve. Elections are held in a three-year and four-year cycle, respectively.

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Newfoundland and Labrador and Confederation

Attempts to bring Newfoundland into Confederation in the 1860s and 1890s were met with lukewarm interest in the colony. In 1934, Newfoundland was in bankruptcy during the Great Depression. It suspended responsible government and accepted an unelected Commission Government directed by Britain. In a 1948 referendum, Newfoundlanders were given the choice to either continue with th Commission Government, join Canada, or seek a return to responsible government as an independent dominion. The independence option won the first vote. But the Confederation option won a run-off vote with 52.3 per cent support. The British and Canadian parliaments approved of the union. Newfoundland became Canada’s 10th province on 31 March 1949. In 2001, the province’s name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Ellesmere Island

Ellesmere Island, at 196,236 km2, is the third-largest island in Canada, the 10th-largest island in the world and the most northerly island in the Arctic Archipelago. It is located in Nunavut and is separated from Greenland by Kane Basin and Kennedy Channel, and from Devon Island to the south by Jones Sound. Cape Columbia (83°06´ 41" N lat) is Canada's most northerly point of land.

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Arctic Ocean and Canada

The Arctic Ocean is a body of water centered approximately on the north pole. It is the smallest of Earth’s five oceans. Its boundaries are defined by the International Hydrographic Organization, although some other authorities draw them differently. Depending on which definition is used, waters of Canada’s Arctic Archipelago are included as part of the ocean, as are major Canadian bodies of water such as Baffin Bay, Hudson Bay and the Beaufort Sea.

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Pacific Ocean and Canada

The Pacific Ocean is the world’s largest ocean. It covers more than 30 per cent of the Earth’s surface — an area roughly the same as the Atlantic and Indian oceans combined. Canada’s relationship with the Pacific Ocean is synonymous with the West Coast of British Columbia. The province’s entire ocean shoreline, including the coasts of Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii, form Canada’s Pacific coastal region. More than 75 per cent of the province’s 5 million residents live within 50 km of the coast.

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Faro

Faro, Yukon, incorporated as a town in 1972, population 348 (2016 census), 344 (2011 census). The town of Faro is located 6 km north of the Campbell Highway, 192 km by air northeast of Whitehorse.

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Carcross

Carcross, Yukon, settlement, population 301 (2016 census), 289 (2011 census). Carcross is a major Tagish and Tlingit community located at the north end of Bennett Lake, 74 km south of Whitehorse.