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Toronto Feature: High Park

This text is from the free Toronto in Time app, which was created by The Canadian Encyclopedia and is available from the App Store and the Google Play store. Visit its companion website, which is linked below, to explore all the features of the app online.

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Vancouver Playhouse Theatre Company

The Vancouver Playhouse adopted the standard program pattern for regional theatres in Canada - a September to May season of about 6 plays that were mainly recent London and Broadway successes with a few classics included. From as early as 1966, every season featured at least one Canadian play.

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National Parks of Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

Canada has 48 national parks. They were created and are run by the federal government. The national parks cover a vast amount of land — about 340,000 km2. This is about 3 per cent of Canada’s landmass. National parks serve two purposes. The first purpose is to preserve and protect nature. The second purpose is to give Canadians the chance to enjoy some of the country’s most beautiful and important natural settings. Millions of Canadians visit national parks every year.

(This article is a plain-language summary of National Parks. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, National Parks of Canada.)

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Thunder Bay

Thunder Bay, ON, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 107,909 (2016 census), 108,359 (2011 census). The City of Thunder Bay was created by the amalgamation of the cities of Fort William and Port Arthur and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre. It is located in northwestern Ontario on the west shore of the Lake Superior bay of the same name. Thunder Bay is situated on the traditional territory of the Anishinaabeg, and the land is covered by the Robinson-Superior Treaty. The Port of Thunder Bay is a western stop along the Great Lakes-St Lawrence Seaway. The region’s geography is dominated by the rocks, lakes and forests of the Canadian Shield. Surrounding communities depend on tourism or resource extraction, and look to Thunder Bay for a wide variety of services.

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Massey Hall

Known as “Canada’s Carnegie Hall,” Massey Hall is Canada’s oldest and most venerated concert hall. It opened in 1894 and was the home of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra and the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir until 1982. The site of many historic events and performances, it has been repeatedly voted Canada’s best live music venue over 1,500 seats and venue of the year by Canadian music industry associations. It is a National Historic Site and a heritage site in the City of Toronto. It was closed between 2 July 2018 and 24 November 2021 to allow for a $184-million renovation.

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Kingston

Kingston, Ontario, incorporated as a city 1846, population 132,485 (2021 census), 123,798 (2016 census). Kingston was first settled in 1783, incorporated as a town in 1838 and as a city in 1846. It is located approximately 175 km southwest of Ottawa, 290 km west of Montreal and 260 km east of Toronto. The former capital of the Province of Canada (1841), Kingston’s position at the junction of the  Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, its proximity to the border with the United States and the dominance of the  Canadian Shield in its surrounding area, have been crucial to its settlement, political and economic history.

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Reserves in Alberta

There are 138 reserves in Alberta, held primarily by the province’s 46 First Nations (see also First Nations in Alberta). A handful of these reserves are held by First Nations based outside the province, namely Salt River First Nation and Smith’s Landing First Nation, whose administrative headquarters are in the Northwest Territories. Onion Lake Cree Nation, based in Saskatchewan, holds a reserve that straddles the Alberta-Saskatchewan border. In 2020, there were 133,051 Registered Indians living in Alberta, 60 per cent of whom lived on reserves. First Nations in Alberta are typically grouped into three areas based on Treaties 6, 7 and 8 (see also Numbered Treaties). While historically the Canadian government assigned reserves to First Nations people and not Métis or Inuit, Alberta is the only province in which Métis people were given a collective land base (see Métis Settlements).

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Intergenerational Trauma and Residential Schools

Historical trauma occurs when trauma caused by historical oppression is passed down through generations. For more than 100 years, the Canadian government supported residential school programs that isolated Indigenous children from their families and communities (see Residential Schools in Canada). Under the guise of educating and preparing Indigenous children for their participation in Canadian society, the federal government and other administrators of the residential school system committed what has since been described as an act of cultural genocide. As generations of students left these institutions, they returned to their home communities without the knowledge, skills or tools to cope in either world. The impacts of their institutionalization in residential school continue to be felt by subsequent generations. This is called intergenerational trauma.

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Heritage Trail

Hundreds of trails are now found from coast to coast in Canada, installed and run by national and provincial parks, the Canadian Wildlife Service, tourist departments, conservation authorities, museums, universities, schools, botanical gardens and private agencies.

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Espace Libre

Espace Libre. A space for creation and dissemination dedicated to experimental theatre and research, Espace Libre marked the 30th anniversary of its founding in 2009.

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Lions Gate Bridge

Lions Gate Bridge, which officially opened on 29 May 1939, spans Burrard Inlet at the First Narrows, connecting Stanley Park and Vancouver’s city centre to the North Shore.