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Markham

Markham, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1971, population 328,966 (2016 census), 301,709 (2011 census). Markham is located immediately northeast of Toronto. It is one of nine municipalities that make up the Regional Municipality of York. The Rouge River cuts through the municipality diagonally, connecting to Rouge National Urban Park. Initially an agricultural community, Markham is now known for its technology businesses and ethnocultural diversity.

Markham is located on the traditional territory of the Huron WendatHaudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg.

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Boîtes à chansons

Boîtes à chansons. Name given to the intimate rooms which sprang up in the mid-1950s outside the normal entertainment circuits and in which most young Quebec chansonniers made their start.

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Vancouver Playhouse Theatre Company

The Vancouver Playhouse adopted the standard program pattern for regional theatres in Canada - a September to May season of about 6 plays that were mainly recent London and Broadway successes with a few classics included. From as early as 1966, every season featured at least one Canadian play.

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Toronto Feature: High Park

This text is from the free Toronto in Time app, which was created by The Canadian Encyclopedia and is available from the App Store and the Google Play store. Visit its companion website, which is linked below, to explore all the features of the app online.

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Thunder Bay

Thunder Bay, ON, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 107,909 (2016 census), 108,359 (2011 census). The City of Thunder Bay was created by the amalgamation of the cities of Fort William and Port Arthur and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre. It is located in northwestern Ontario on the west shore of the Lake Superior bay of the same name. Thunder Bay is situated on the traditional territory of the Anishinaabeg, and the land is covered by the Robinson-Superior Treaty. The Port of Thunder Bay is a western stop along the Great Lakes-St Lawrence Seaway. The region’s geography is dominated by the rocks, lakes and forests of the Canadian Shield. Surrounding communities depend on tourism or resource extraction, and look to Thunder Bay for a wide variety of services.

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Yellowknife

Yellowknife, NWT, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 19,569 (2016 c), 19,234 (2011 c). The City of Yellowknife is the capital of the Northwest Territories and the territory's only city. It sits on the Canadian Shield, on the north shore of Great Slave Lake, 512 km from the Arctic Circle and approximately 1,513 km north of Edmonton, Alberta. Due to its northerly location, Yellowknife is the Canadian city with the most hours of summer sunshine, averaging 1,030 hours per year. The city and Yellowknife Bay were named after the Yellowknives, a Dene band who lived on the islands of Great Slave's East Arm and travelled as far north as the Arctic coast to obtain copper for knives and other implements. They, in turn, acquired their name from the copper-bladed knives they carried.

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Massey Hall

Known as “Canada’s Carnegie Hall,” Massey Hall is Canada’s oldest and most venerated concert hall. It opened in 1894 and was the home of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra and the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir until 1982. The site of many historic events and performances, it has been repeatedly voted Canada’s Best Live Music Venue Over 1,500 Seats and Venue of the Year by Canadian music industry associations. It is a National Historic Site and a heritage site in the City of Toronto. It will be closed for two years as of 2 July 2018 to allow for a $142-million renovation.

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Reserves in Alberta

There are 138 reserves in Alberta. Members of Alberta’s 47 First Nations live in these communities. In addition, two First Nations — Salt River and Onion Lake Cree — are based in other provinces or territories, but have reserve land in Alberta. In 2019, there were 131,697 registered Indians living in Alberta, 58 per cent of whom lived on reserves. The remainder live in other municipalities. First Nations in Alberta are typically grouped into three areas based on Treaties 6, 7 and 8 (see also Numbered Treaties). While historically the Canadian government assigned reserves to First Nations people and not Métis or Inuit, Alberta is the only province in which Métis people were given a collective land base (see Métis Settlements).

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Intergenerational Trauma and Residential Schools

Historical trauma occurs when trauma caused by historical oppression is passed down through generations. For more than 100 years, the Canadian government supported residential school programs that isolated Indigenous children from their families and communities (see Residential Schools in Canada). Under the guise of educating and preparing Indigenous children for their participation in Canadian society, the federal government and other administrators of the residential school system committed what has since been described as an act of cultural genocide. As generations of students left these institutions, they returned to their home communities without the knowledge, skills or tools to cope in either world. The impacts of their institutionalization in residential school continue to be felt by subsequent generations. This is called intergenerational trauma.

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Physiographic Regions

Canada may be divided into seven physiographic regions: Arctic Lands, Cordillera, Interior Plains, Hudson Bay Lowland, Canadian Shield Forest Lands, St Lawrence Lowlands and Appalachia.

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Heritage Trail

Hundreds of trails are now found from coast to coast in Canada, installed and run by national and provincial parks, the Canadian Wildlife Service, tourist departments, conservation authorities, museums, universities, schools, botanical gardens and private agencies.