Search for "New France"

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Jean de Lauson

Jean de Lauson, governor of New France 1651-56 (b c 1584; d at Paris, France 16 Feb 1666). Long before coming to the colony as governor, Lauson had enjoyed a close and lucrative connection with Canada.

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Jean-François Gaultier

Jean-François Gaultier, king's physician, naturalist (b at La Croix-Avranchin, France 6 Oct 1708; d at Québec C 10 July 1756). Appointed king's physician of New France, he arrived in Québec in 1742. There he took over M.

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Antoine-Denis Raudot

Antoine-Denis Raudot, intendant of New France, 1705-10 (b 1679; d at Versailles, France 28 July 1737). He had begun a career in the ministry of marine when he and his father Jacques Raudot were jointly appointed intendant.

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Indigenous-French Relations

French fishermen, settlers, fur traders, missionaries and colonial agents were among the earliest Europeans to have sustained contact with ​Indigenous peoples in what is now Canada and North America. The relationship between French and Indigenous people of the Eastern Woodlands in the early colonial period was complex and interdependent. France saw Indigenous nations as allies, and relied on them for survival and fur trade wealth. Indigenous people traded for European goods, established military alliances and hostilities, intermarried, sometimes converted to Christianity, and participated politically in the governance of New France. With the transfer of New France to Britain in 1763, diplomatic relations between the French and Indigenous people in Canada ceased. Naturally, social and economic interaction between the European and Indigenous inhabitants of New France continued.

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Michel Sarrazin

Michel Sarrazin, surgeon, physician, naturalist (b at Nuits-sous-Beaune, France 5 Sept 1659; d at Québec C 8 Sept 1734). He came to New France in 1685 and the following year was appointed surgeon-major to the colonial regular troops. He later studied medicine in France for 3 years and returned to Québec in 1697 as king's physician.

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Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle

Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle, governor of New France 1665-72 (b in France 1626; d there 24 Oct 1698). Courcelle, a nobleman and a military officer, arrived at Québec "breathing nothing but war" and determined to defeat the powerful Iroquois Confederacy.

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Intendant

Intendant of New France, office created in 1663 when Louis XIV established a system of colonial government, including a Gouverneur and Sovereign council.

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Jacques Cartier

Jacques Cartier, navigator (born between 7 June and 23 December 1491 in Saint-Malo, France; died 1 September 1557 in Saint-Malo, France). From 1534 to 1542, Cartier led three maritime expeditions to the interior of the Gulf of the St. Lawrence River. During these expeditions, he explored, but more importantly accurately mapped for the first time the interior of the river, from the Gulf to Montreal (see also History of Cartography in Canada). For this navigational prowess, Cartier is still considered by many as the founder of “Canada.” At the time, however, this term described only the region immediately surrounding Quebec. Cartier’s upstream navigation of the St. Lawrence River in the 16th century ultimately led to France occupying this part of North America.

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Claude de Ramezay

Claude de Ramezay, (born 15 June 1659 in La Gesse, France; died 31 July 1724 in Quebec City). Claude de Ramezay came to New France as an officer in the troupes de la marine. He served as governor of Trois-Rivières (1690–99), commander of Canadian troops (1699–1704), governor of Montreal (1704–24), and as acting governor general of New France (1714–16). Throughout his time in New France, he pursued fur trade and lumber interests. He is also remembered for his home, Château Ramezay. Built in 1705, it is now a museum and one of Montreal’s landmark historical buildings.

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France Daigle

​France Daigle, Acadian author (born 18 November 1953 in Dieppe, a suburb of Moncton, New Brunswick), is the leading representative of postmodern Acadian literature.

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Jean Bochart de Champigny

Jean Bochart de Champigny , chevalier, INTENDANT of New France 1686-1702 (b after 1645; d at Hâvre-de-Grâce, France Dec 1720). A competent and conscientious intendant, Champigny worked to sustain military preparedness during 13 years of war with the Iroquois nations and the British.

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Pierre de Voyer d'Argenson

Pierre de Voyer d'Argenson, governor of New France 1658-61 (bap in France 19 Nov 1625; d there 1709?). There was an Iroquois attack the day following Governor d'Argenson's arrival at Québec, and negotiations with and defence against these powerful enemies were his major preoccupations.

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Médard Chouart des Groseilliers

Médard Chouart Des Groseilliers, explorer, fur trader (bap at Charly-sur-Marne, France 31 July 1618; d at New France 1696?). A man of courage who valued personal freedom and initiative, Des Groseilliers opened Lakes Michigan and Superior to the fur trade and Jesuit missionaries.