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William Warren Baldwin

William Warren Baldwin, doctor, lawyer, politician (b at Knockmore, Ire 25 Apr 1775; d at Toronto 8 Jan 1844). He arrived in Upper Canada in 1799, eventually settling at York [Toronto]. Urbane, talented and in due course wealthy, Baldwin established a comfortable and distinguished law practice.

Article

Albert Peter Low

Albert Peter Low, geologist, explorer (b at Montréal 24 May 1861; d at Ottawa 9 Oct 1942). Low joined the Geological Survey of Canada on graduation from McGill. The Québec-Labrador border was eventually defined on the basis of his 1893-95 explorations.

Article

Anderson Abbott

Anderson Ruffin Abbott, doctor, surgeon (born 7 April 1837 in Toronto, Upper Canada; died 29 December 1913 in Toronto, ON). Abbott was the first Canadian-born Black person to graduate from medical school. He served the Union army as a civilian surgeon during the American Civil War.

Article

Sir Charles Edward Saunders

Charles was the least robust of them all but perhaps had the highest standards. Educated at U of T and Johns Hopkins U, he was a professor of chemistry at Central U, Ky, in 1892-93 and then devoted 1894-1903 to the study of music and teaching of voice.

Article

Ian Hacking

Ian Hacking, philosopher (b at Vancouver BC 18 February 1936). Ian Hacking grew up in Vancouver and completed his first degree, a BA in mathematics and physics, at the University of British Columbia. He then went on to Cambridge University, where he earned a BA, MA, and Ph.D.

Article

Georges Boucher de Boucherville

Pierre-Georges-Prévost Boucher de Boucherville, soldier and Governor Prévost's aide-de-camp, writer and inventor (b at Québec City 21 October 1814, d at St-Laurent [Île d'Orléans] 6 September 1894), first child of Pierre Boucher de Boucherville, seigneur.

Article

Philippe Couillard

Philippe Couillard, neurosurgeon and Québec politician (born 26 June 1957 in Montréal, Québec). Philippe Couillard was a highly regarded neurosurgeon before pursuing a career in politics. He was elected to the National Assembly in 2003 and served as Minister of Health and Social Services until 2008. After a hiatus from politics, he was elected leader of the Quebec Liberal Party in March 2013 and premier of Québec in the 7 April 2014 election. However, in the provincial election of 1 October 2018, the Coalition Avenir Québec under François Legault won a majority. Couillard resigned as leader of the party following the election.

Article

Frances Oldham Kelsey

​Frances Oldham Kelsey, CM, pharmacologist (born 24 July 1914 in Cobble Hill, BC; died 7 August 2015 in London, ON). As an employee of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Kelsey blocked the sale of thalidomide in the United States. The drug, which had been widely prescribed in Europe and Canada, was later shown to cause severe birth defects in children whose mothers had taken the drug while pregnant. In recognition of her “exceptional judgment” and determination, Kelsey received the President’s Award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service. Kelsey and her work have been widely lauded in the United States but are less known in Canada. She was made a Member of the Order of Canada shortly before her death.

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30 Scientists

​To celebrate its 30th anniversary, The Canadian Encyclopedia created 30 lists of 30 things that make us proud to be Canadian, from famous people and historic events, to iconic foods and influential artists.

Article

Jennie Trout

Jennie (Jenny) Kidd Trout, physician, teacher (born 21 April 1841 in Kelso, Scotland; died 10 November 1921 in Hollywood, California). Trout was the first female physician licensed to practice medicine in Canada. She received her license from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Ontario in 1875.

Article

Helen Sawyer Hogg

Helen Battles Sawyer Hogg (née Sawyer), CC, astronomer and educator (born 1 August 1905 in Lowell, Massachusetts; died 28 January 1993 in Toronto, ON). Recognized internationally for her research on globular star clusters, Helen Sawyer Hogg significantly advanced astronomers’ understanding of the location and age of stars as well as the origins and evolution of our galaxy, the Milky Way. She also contributed greatly to the Canadian public’s understanding of astronomy and inspired women to enter scientific professions.

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