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Fort Ticonderoga

Fort Ticonderoga (Carillon), a "place between the waters," is strategically situated at the confluence of Lakes Champlain and George in upper New York.

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Newfoundland Bill

The people of NEWFOUNDLAND rejected CONFEDERATION in 1867, choosing to remain a British colony until 1948, when a majority of voters indicated their willingness to join Canada.

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Fort Vancouver

Fort Vancouver, a HUDSON'S BAY CO fur-trade post, was originally constructed in 1825 by Dr. John McLoughlin about 150 km inland on the north bank of the Columbia River, 8 km above the mouth of the Willamette. In 1829, the

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Games

Games are distinguishable from other forms of play in that they are contests in which all players start out with equal chances of winning; they end when a winner or loser is determined; and although the play may appear spontaneous or unsupervised, it is in fact guided by rigid rules and procedures.

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Hazardous Wastes

Waste may be defined as any substance for which the generator or owner has no further use. Hazardous wastes are waste substances whose disposal in the environment could potentially pose hazards to human health, jeopardize natural or agricultural resources, or interfere with other amenities.

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Competitive Cycling in Canada

Bicycle racing comprises many events, from short-distance sprints on banked velodromes to road races covering distances of 30 to over 5,000 km, as well as mountain bike, BMX and para-cycling competitions. Canadians have made their mark in international cycling, including podium finishes at major competitions like the Olympics/Paralympics and world championships.

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Fort Frontenac

Frontenac reoccupied the site, rebuilding the fort in 1695, and the post became known as Fort Frontenac. Reinforced by troops under François-Charles de Bourlamaque and later the Marquis de MONTCALM, it nevertheless fell to the British under John Bradstreet in August 1758.

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Fly

Adult flies have sucking or piercing mouth parts and lack the mandibles with which other insects bite food. Many so called "biting flies" (eg, horseflies, mosquitoes, no-see-ums, black flies, stable flies, tse-tse flies) feed on VERTEBRATE blood.

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Forage Crops

Forage refers to plants consumed by animals, particularly livestock. Forage may be preserved by drying the plants to produce hay, it may be fermented to produce silage, and dried material is also compressed to produce compacted hay, pellets, and cubes .

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Insect Pests

Insects and humans cohabit the Earth and have developed complex relationships. Insect pests (less than 1% of all species) are those insects that feed on, compete for food with, or transmit diseases to humans and livestock.

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Fitness

The Canada Fitness Survey (1981 with a longitudinal follow-up in 1989), involved nearly 12 000 households in 80 urban and rural communities across Canada. Approximately 16 000 people, aged 7 to 69 years, participated in a fitness test, and 22 000 completed a questionnaire.

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Firearms

For many centuries, a legend has persisted that gunpowder was invented in China. Until recently, however, there was no real proof to support the story. In 1986, a team of researchers headed by Dr. Joseph Neeham at Cambridge University published the necessary evidence.

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The Great Flag Debate

The long and often bitter debate over the new Canadian flag began in the House of Commons on 15 June 1964. It ended by closure on 15 December 1964. Feelings ran high among many English Canadians. Opposition leader John Diefenbaker demanded that the flag honour Canada’s “founding races” and feature the Union Jack. Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson insisted on a design that conveyed allegiance to Canada while avoiding colonial association. A prolonged, heated debate ensued. Historian Rick Archbold described it as “among the ugliest in the House of Commons history.” The new flag, designed by George Stanley with final touches by graphic artist Jacques Saint-Cyr, was approved on 15 December 1964 by a vote of 163 to 78. The royal proclamation was signed by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 January 1965. The national flag was officially unfurled on 15 February 1965.

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Société des Fils de la liberté

Founded in Montréal on 5 September 1837, the Société des Fils de la liberté was a paramilitary group affiliated with the Patriotes, formed in response to growing frustration among the Parti patriote and its supporters that political reform in Lower Canada was taking too long. Their aim was to support and protect the Patriotes. Borrowing their name from the American revolutionary secret society known as the Sons of Liberty, the group included some of the most important members of the party, including Louis-Joseph Papineau and Edmund Bailey O’Callaghan. In Montréal, the group was opposed by the English-speaking paramilitary group the Doric Club, which led to a violent confrontation on 6 November 1837. The group disbanded shortly afterwards and many of its members went on to participate in the Canadian Rebellion.

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Department of Finance

The Department of Finance Canada is the federal government's main engine of research, advice and analysis on national economic and financial affairs, including fiscal policy, debt management and taxation.

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Finance Act

Finance Act, August 1914, emergency measure ending Canada's GOLD STANDARD and giving the Department of Finance new powers.