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Blacksmithing

All these workers practised a technology that came from the great French craft tradition; their highly skilled art derived from trade guild knowledge, instruction and scientific treatises.

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Biogeoclimatic Zone

For example, in British Columbia, the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone is one of 14 biogeoclimatic zones. It occupies high precipitation areas up to 1000 m elevation west of the coastal mountains from the Washington to Alaska borders and beyond.

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Billiards

Billiard games have been played for several hundred years and have been popular in North America since the early 1800s. In Canada, snooker is the most popular of these games, with some pool and varieties of billiards also being played.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, encompasses the study of the chemical nature of living material and of the chemical transformations that occur within it.

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Biography in French

Biography is the study of a life. It reveals a personality and an analysis of an individual's work in the context of the age in which it existed. Biography has always been popular in French Canada.

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Biology

Biological studies of individuals and groups of organisms can occur at various levels (eg, molecular, cellular, anatomical, functional, behavioural, ecological and evolutionary).

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Bitumen

One of the easiest ways to understand bitumen is to compare it to its cousin, conventional crude oil. Whereas conventional crude oil flows freely, bitumen does not. At room temperature it looks like cold molasses, and must be either heated or diluted before it flows.

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Bill 63

Bill 63, (Nov 1969), required children receiving their education in English to acquire a working knowledge of French and required everything to be done so that immigrants acquired the knowledge of French upon arrival in Québec.

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Brunette Island

Brunette Island, 20 km2, is situated at the mouth of Fortune B on Newfoundland's S coast, 18 km S of Connaigre Head. The island, roughly triangular, measures 11 km E-W and 6 km N-S. A steep ridge backs the NW shore, at one point rising to 160 m.

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Quebec Film History: 1990 to Present

This entry presents an overview of Quebec cinema, from the explosion that followed Denys Arcand’s Le déclin de l’empire américain (1986) to the setback that followed 10 years later and the new wave of filmmaking that emerged at the beginning of the 21st century. It highlights the most important films, whether in terms of box office success or international acclaim, and covers both narrative features and documentaries. It also draws attention to an aspect of filmmaking that still has difficulty finding its place: women's cinema.

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Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy may be defined as a formal organizational arrangement characterized by division of labour, specialization of functions, a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules, regulations and record keeping. In common usage, it refers to the administrative branch of government.

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Capilano Review

Capilano Review (1972) is a magazine of literature and the arts founded at Capilano College, N Vancouver, as an offshoot of the creative writing program. Originally a quarterly, Capilano Review has been published 3 times a year since 1989.

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Algae

They are mostly photosynthetic organisms whose body is termed a thallus (ie; they lack leaves, stems and roots). All the photosynthetic forms possess chlorophyll a as their primary photosynthetic pigment. Algae also form unprotected reproductive structures.

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Alien Question

The earliest settlers of Upper Canada were normally American immigrants, free to take up land and enjoy the privileges of British subjects upon giving an oath of allegiance to the Crown.

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Customs and Excise

Customs and excise, taxes on goods, are one of the world's oldest sources of government revenue. Customs duties are applied on imported products while excise duties and taxes are generally applied on goods of domestic manufacture, notably liquor and tobacco.

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Davis Cup

Considered the world's pre-eminent men's team tennis tournament, the Davis Cup made its debut in 1900 when a Harvard student named Dwight Filley Davis donated the silver trophy as the prize for a team tournament that summer at the Longwood Cricket Club in Boston.

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Kayak

For over 2,000 years, the Inuit have used kayaks for traveling and hunting expeditions, except for the most northerly polar Inuit.

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Eggplant

Eggplant (Solanum melongena var. esculentum), or aubergine, perennial herbaceous plant of the nightshade family.