Search for "New France"
Literary History in English in the 21st century
This troubled period began with the Y2K scare, when COMPUTER programs worldwide were expected to fail. 3000 people, 25 of them Canadian, died in the New York Trade Center bombings on "9-11" 2001.
Literary History in English 1867-1914
With Confederation came immediate calls for Maritime separation but also a quickened interest in the growth of a national culture. Journalists and academic essayists earnestly disputed Canada's political destiny.
Literary History in English 1960-1980
The period between 1960 and 1980 was a definitive moment in Canadian literary history. Energized by the country’s centennial celebrations and widespread cultural nationalism, authors were excited by the prospect of Canadian literature as a means to help develop a national identity.
Literary History in English 1914-1940
The FIRST WORLD WAR featured variously in Canadian LITERATURE: as historical subject and setting, metaphor of personal conflict and national coming-of-age, test of loyalty, instance of officiousness, and prototype of political bias (SeeFIRST WORLD WAR IN CANADIAN LITERATURE).
Literary History in English 1980-2000
The last two decades of the 20th century were marked by growing social and economic conservatism, a tendency towards fewer gambles in PUBLISHING ventures, and a greater reliance on computer TECHNOLOGY (e-mail, internet communications, electronic journals such as Frank DAVEY's Swift Current): A.K.
Filles du Roi
Unmarried women sponsored by the king to immigrate to New France between 1663 and 1673. Private interests gave priority to bringing over male workers, and the French government and religious communities wanted to correct the gender imbalance in the colonies.
Maison Saint-Gabriel is a museum and historic site that openedin 1966. This 300-year-old building, located in Montréal’s Pointe-Sainte-Charles district, is one of the finest examples of the traditional architecture of New France.
Capote, a hooded greatcoat rather like a parka, usually worn with a sash around the waist, popular with habitants of New France and French Canadian traders and trappers. The word is derived from the French word for "cape.
Brandy Parliament, an assembly of 20 notables of New France, who on 10 October 1678 were asked their opinion of the sale of brandy to the Indigenous peoples. The title was bestowed in 1921 by historian W.B. Munro.
Shipbuilding and Ship Repair
The first SAILING SHIPS built in what is now Canada were 2 small craft launched at PORT-ROYAL, Acadia, by François Gravé du Pont in 1606. The first recorded seagoing vessel, Galiote, was built in NEW FRANCE in 1663.
Treaty of Breda
Breda, Treaty of, agreements signed 21 July 1667 at Breda, the Netherlands, between England and the Netherlands and between England and France, ending the second Anglo-Dutch War. The former treaty recognized the English conquest of Amsterdam (New York) in 1664.
Unique to French-speaking Canada, the collège classique (classical college) has over the centuries prepared Québec's social and intellectual elite for higher education. The first classical college was COLLÈGE DES JÉSUITES, established in New France by Jesuit missionaries in 1635.
Missions and Missionaries
In New France as elsewhere the christianization of the Indigenous population was an ostensible motive for European occupation, and trading companies and governors were under official pressure to provide it. The actual work was left largely to religious orders and societies.
Capitulation of Montréal 1760
The capitulation of Montréal to the British on 8 September 1760 effectively completed Britain’s conquest of New France in the Seven Years' War (the war itself would continue until 1763, at which point the French colony formally became a British possession).
Université du Québec en Outaouais (UQO)
The Université du Québec en Outaouais (UQO) is part of the Université du Québec (UQ), the only public university network in Canada. The UQO’s main campus is located in the Outaouais region.
Voyageurs were independent contractors, workers or minor partners in companies involved in the fur trade. They were licensed to transport goods to trading posts and were usually forbidden to do any trading of their own. The fur trade changed over the years, as did the groups of men working in it. In the 17th century, voyageurs were often coureurs des bois — unlicensed traders responsible for delivering trade goods from suppliers to Indigenous peoples. The implementation of the trading licence system in 1681 set voyageurs apart from coureurs des bois, who were then considered outlaws of sorts. Today, the word voyageur, like the term coureur des bois, evokes the romantic image of men canoeing across the continent in search of furs. Their life was full of perilous adventure, gruelling work and cheerful camaraderie.
Gouverneur (governor), the French monarch's official representative in NEW FRANCE. The office, created before a complete system of government had been established, was always granted to a member of the nobility by royal commission, and the appointment could be withdrawn at any time.
The practice of offering regular gifts to Indigenous trading partners and allies, begun by Governor Montmagny in 1648, was, by the end of the 17th century institutionalized as the "Présents du Roy" at the annual meeting with the governor-general of New France at Montréal.