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Welland Canal

A lifeline of trade and commerce into the heart of North America, the first Welland Canal opened in 1829, an achievement attributed primarily to a St Catharines businessman, William Hamilton MERRITT.


Hudson Bay

It is virtually landlocked but is joined to the Arctic Ocean to the north by Foxe Channel and Fury and Hecla Strait, and to the Atlantic Ocean on the east by Hudson Strait. Baffin Island lies athwart the entrance to the bay, and Southampton, Coats and Mansel islands are lodged across the northern gap.


Bay d'Espoir

Bay d'Espoir is a fjordlike arm of Hermitage Bay on Newfoundland's south coast, entered between West Head and Dawson Point, 3 km northwest. More than 50 km from mouth to head, ice-free Bay d'Espoir (French for "hope") has sheer cliffs and steep-sided hills rising 180 to 300 m.


James Bay

James Bay is the southern appendage of Hudson Bay. It is about 160 km wide between Pointe Louis-XIV on the east coast and Cape Henrietta Marie on the west.


Champlain Sea

The Champlain Sea is a body of saline to brackish water 55 000 km2 that occupied the depressed land of the ST LAWRENCE LOWLAND between Québec City and Brockville, Ont, and extended up the Ottawa River Valley during the late glacial period 12 000 to 10 000 years ago (seeGLACIATION).


St. Lawrence Seaway

The St Lawrence Seaway (Great Lakes Waterway) is the system of locks, canals and channels linking the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence River with the Atlantic Ocean.