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Canals and Inland Waterways

These 2 great journeys were first made just before the end of the 18th century, and by the same man. Alexander Mackenzie reached the mouth of the river which now bears his name in 1789, and was the first European to cross the North American continent (to Bella Coola) in 1793.

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Ornamentals

Ornamentals, in horticulture, include both woody and herbaceous plants used primarily as amenities.

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Talc

Talc is a mineral composed of 31.7% magnesium oxide (MgO), 63.5% silicon dioxide (SiO2) and 4.8% water. It is formed by the alteration of dolomite or ultramafic IGNEOUS rocks. A formula for pure talc would look like this: 3 dolomite + 4 quartz + 1 water = 1 talc + 3 calcite + 3 CO2.

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Pediatrics

Pediatrics is that branch of MEDICINE concerned with the child, its development, care and diseases.

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Urban Effect on Climate

Both land surface and air are altered by urbanization. Buildings change the geometric arrangement of the land surface, creating a rigid, rough system of blocks and street "canyons," especially in the centre of cities.

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Oil City

Oil City, Alberta, is the site of western Canada's first producing oil well, known previously as Original Discovery No 1, located in WATERTON LAKES NATIONAL PARK. Kutenai had used oil from seepage pools along Cameron Creek and early settlers used it to lubricate wagons.

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Hospital Architecture

The financial sources and social mandates of hospitals have varied widely over the past 400 years. The earliest hospitals included military and marine hospitals, as well as Roman Catholic and then Protestant benevolent institutions.

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Grain Growers' Associations

Grain growers' associations are a group of farm organizations formed on the Prairies in the early 20th century. They developed in the wake of the Manitoba Grain Act (July 1900), which regulated railways and grain elevators in the interests of grain growers.

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Water Pollution

Water pollution occurs when discharges of energy or materials degrade the quality of water for other users, including both humans and wildlife. Pollution can affect inland waters such as lakes, rivers and groundwater, as well as coastal marine waters.

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Columbium

Columbium (Cb), or niobium, is a grey, ductile, tarnish-resistant and superconductive metal with a melting point of 2468°C. The name niobium (Nb) was officially adopted in 1951 by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, after 100 years of controversy.

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Samson

Samson, first locomotive in North America to burn coal and the first to run over all-iron rails. Built in New Shildon, England, it was shipped to Pictou, NS, to haul coal from the Albion Mines 9.6 km over a tramway to Dunbar Point on Pictou Harbour.

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Station PAPA

Station PAPA Ocean Weather Station "P" is commonly called Station PAPA after the code word for the letter P in the phonetic alphabet used by radio operators. Station PAPA is located in the N Pacific Ocean (50° N, 145° W) and has a water depth of 4200 m.

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Telegraph

In 1868 the Montreal Telegraph Co began facing direct competition from the newly established Dominion Telegraph Co and price wars broke out.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology was defined by the 1981 Federal Task Force on Biotechnology (Brossard Committee) as the "utilization of biological processes, be they microbial, plant, animal cells or their constituents, for the provision of goods and services.

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Biomass Energy

Biomass energy, or bioenergy, is the energy stored in biomass — that is, nonfossil organic materials such as wood, straw, vegetable oils and wastes from forestry, agriculture and industry, as well as municipal solid waste.