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Mineral Naming

Each mineral species is identified by its own appellation, and names have been assigned since antiquity. While there are only some 3000 valid mineral species, nearly 20 000 names occur in the literature. This is partly because researchers working independently have given different names to the same mineral, and partly because distinct names have been applied to minerals that later proved to be varieties or mixtures of already known species. Today a much better control is exercised by the Commission on New Minerals and New Mineral Names established in 1959 by the International Mineralogical Association.

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History of Medicine to 1950

The theory and practice of medicine in Canada changed significantly from the 16th to the 20th century, with important developments in medical education and regulation, understanding of anatomy and disease, public health and immunization, and pharmacology.

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Arpent

Arpent, a French measure of length and area. Numerous regional variants of the arpent coexisted in 17th-century France; of these, the arpent de Paris came into use in Canada before 1636 as part of a system of measures. The arpent de superficie, or square arpent (equivalent to 0.

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Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada is the nation’s central statistical agency. It was established in 1918 as the Dominion Bureau of Statistics and adopted its present name in 1971. Under the Statistics Act of that year, it has the responsibility to “collect, compile, analyse, abstract and publish statistical information relating to the commercial, industrial, financial, social, economic and general activities and condition of the people.” The agency works with government departments to develop integrated social and economic statistics for Canada and the provinces and territories. In addition, Statistics Canada is a scientific research organization that develops methodologies and techniques related to statistics and survey design.

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Carbone 14

Carbone 14, a theatre company based in Montréal until its quiet dissolution in 2005, produced a style of physical theatre that was formalistic, imagistic and avant-garde. From the beginning it excited audiences and influenced performance art in Québec.

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Tidal Energy

Tidal energy is a largely untapped, renewable energy source based largely on lunar gravitation. While the potential of tidal hydroelectricity has long been recognized, compared to river dams, tidal power projects are expensive because massive structures must be built in difficult saltwater environments.

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Wind Energy

Wind energy is energy obtained from moving air. The motion results from the heating and cooling of the Earth; thus, wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy.

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Astronomy

Modern astronomy, however, is more concerned with the physical and chemical nature of matter beyond Earth, where conditions of temperature and pressure, and gravitational and magnetic fields allow astronomers to observe matter under extremes unattainable in terrestrial laboratories.

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Sonar

Sonar (sound navigation and ranging), method for locating objects by the reflection of sound waves. It is used naturally by such animals as BATS and DOLPHINS to locate food and obstacles.

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Sanofi Pasteur Limited

Sanofi Pasteur Limited, formerly known as Connaught Laboratories Limited of Toronto, is the leading supplier of vaccines in Canada. The parent company is Sanofi Pasteur, one of the world's largest manufacturers of vaccines and a division of Sanofi-aventis, a diversified pharmaceutical company.

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Geothermal Energy

Geothermal Energy is the exploitable heat within the Earth. The interior of the planet is maintained at a high temperature by a vast store of heat, of which part remains from the formation of the Earth and part is continually generated by the decay of radioactive elements