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Boundaries

The political boundaries that are of concern to Canada today are the international boundaries primarily with the US and Greenland and, because they are of more than local importance, the boundaries of the provinces and territories. The evolution of both types involved 2 distinct stages. After political decisions were made on the allocation of territory, such territories were delimited and the boundaries described in state documents. Then, usually some time later, the boundaries were surveyed and marked on the ground (the process of demarcation).

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Referendum

A referendum is the asking of a political question to an electorate, for direct decision by general vote. Although federal referendums are rare in Canada, there have been numerous provincial referendums and plebiscites since Confederation.

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Terrorism Summit

Terrorism is not a new curse. There was a time when the most fearsome terrorist of the day was "Carlos" Sanchez, better remembered by his flashier nom de guerre, The Jackal.

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Political Cartoons

The art of the political cartoon as we know it in Canada today began in the 1870s when John W. Bengough (1851-1923) started publishing his satirical magazine, Grip.

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Magna Carta

​The 1215 agreement between King John of England and his barons provided the foundation for English common law, which spread throughout the English-speaking world.

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Miramichi Lumber Strike

The Miramichi Lumber Strike began 20 August 1937 when 1500 millworkers and longshoremen along the Miramichi River in northern New Brunswick struck 14 lumber firms for increased wages, shorter working hours and union recognition.

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Imperialism

Support for the British Empire and imperialism was strong in much of Canada in the decades after Confederation. But gradually, imperialist loyalties declined and Canadians demanded and won full autonomy within the empire.

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Co-operative Commonwealth Federation

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was founded in Calgary in 1932 as a political coalition of progressive, socialist and labour groups that wanted economic reform, to help Canadians affected by the Great Depression. The party governed Saskatchewan under Tommy Douglas, who went on to be the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party. The CCF was eventually folded into the NDP, which formed the Opposition party in the House of Commons in 2011.

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Québec Immigration Policy

​Québec’s policies on immigration and integration are different from the federal government’s (see Immigration Policy), in particular in the way that Québec represents itself and is represented abroad as a society that receives and integrates new immigrants.

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Manifest Destiny

The term Manifest Destiny was first used in 1845 by New York City journalist John Louis O’Sullivan. He used the term in the context of America’s annexation of the Republic of Texas. Manifest Destiny represented the idea that it was America’s right — its destiny, in fact — to expand across all of North America. Politicians and citizens in the United States called for the US to expand by claiming control of British territory. This included the Province of Canada (formerly Upper Canada and Lower Canada), New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

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Social Union Deal

Even Lucien Bouchard's glowering presence could not entirely sour the mood. In announcing a deal to overhaul the way Ottawa and the provinces work together on social programs, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien spoke proudly of "a new departure.

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Throne Speech 1996

As Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's government tried to evoke a new era of Canadian team spirit in the House of Commons last week, it was no coincidence that the one premier who came to listen was Captain Canada himself.

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Clark and NDP Win in BC

Well, perhaps. In fact, the contrasts displayed on election night last week in British Columbia were, for the most part, more apparent than real - as was Clark's claim to be leading the province of 3.8 million down a radically new road.

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Militia Acts

Militia Acts provided manpower for defence. Until the 1850s, such Acts in Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick usually imposed compulsory service on males between 16 and 50 or 60, with annual or more frequent enrolment musters.

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