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Editorial

Women on Canadian Banknotes

Though Queen Elizabeth II has appeared on the $20 bill since she was eight years old, identifiable Canadian women have only appeared on a Canadian banknote once. In 2004, the statue of the Famous Five from Parliament Hill and Olympic Plaza in Calgary, and the medal for the Thérèse Casgrain Volunteer Award were featured on the back of the $50 note. They were the first Canadian women to appear on our currency. However, in 2011, they were replaced by an icebreaker named for a man (see Roald Amundsen). The new bill was part of a series of notes meant to highlight technical innovation and achievement, but the change sparked controversy. Other than the image of a nameless female scientist on the $100 note issued in 2011, and two female Canadian Forces officers and a young girl on the $10 bill issued in 2001, Canadian women were absent from Canadian bills.

On 8 March 2016, International Women’s Day, the Bank of Canada launched a public consultation to choose an iconic Canadian woman who would be featured on a banknote, released in the next series of bills in 2018. More than 26,000 submissions poured in. Of those, 461 names met the qualifying criteria, and the list was pared down to a long list of 12 and finally a short list of five. The final selection will be announced on 8 December 2016.

But how did we get here?

Article

Cod Moratorium of 1992

On 2 July 1992, the federal government banned cod fishing along Canada’s east coast. This moratorium ended nearly five centuries of cod fishing in Newfoundland and Labrador. Cod had played a central role in the province’s economy and culture.

The aim of the policy was to help restore cod stocks that had been depleted due to overfishing. Today, the cod population remains too low to support a full-scale fishery. For this reason, the ban is still largely in place.

Click here for definitions of key terms used in this article.

Article

Logo

One of the first details a new company must consider is its corporate image, reflected in the design of a symbol to be used in advertising and on packaging, vehicles and stationery.

Article

Pacific Fur Company

The Pacific Fur Company was established on 23 June 1810 and headed by New York fur dealer John Jacob Astor. Principal partners included ex-Nor'Westers Alexander McKay, Donald McKenzie and Duncan McDougall.

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Commercial Law

Commercial law is that branch of private law concerned primarily with the supply of goods or services by merchants and other businesses for profit. Textbooks on commercial law frequently differ on the range of topics treated in them.

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J. & O. Crémazie

J. & O. Crémazie. Quebec City booksellers and music publishers. The partnership between the brothers Joseph (1812-80) and Octave (1827-79) began in 1844 and lasted until 1862.

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Banking in Canada

Banking is a financial process carried out by an institution that accepts deposits, lends money and transfers funds. Canada's major banks play a vital role in the economy and today also engage in the insurance, trust and securities markets. Their business, the technology surrounding it and the regulations that govern it, have evolved continuously over the centuries.

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Dairy Farming

About 60% of the milk produced is processed into butter, cheese and skim milk powder; the remainder is consumed in liquid form.

Article

G7 (Group of Seven)

The G7, or Group of Seven, is an international group comprising the governments of the world’s largest economies: Germany, France, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada. It was founded as the G6 in 1975 and became the G7 with the addition of Canada in 1976. The Group is an informal bloc; it has no treaty or constitution and no permanent offices, staff or secretariat. The leaders of the member states meet at annual summits to discuss issues of mutual concern and to coordinate actions to address them. The meeting location and the organization’s presidency rotates among the members. The European Union is also a non-enumerated member, though it never assumes the rotating presidency.

Macleans

Martin Reports a Surplus

Finance Minister Paul Martin’s mission was clear in delivering his annual fall economic update. Douse hopes that much new spending is in the works. Dismiss the argument that Ottawa can afford a big reduction in Employment Insurance premiums.

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Globe and Mail

 The Globe and Mail, Toronto, was founded in 1936 when George McCullagh united two influential and historically important dailies, The Globe and The Mail and Empire. From the beginning, the new newspaper took on the character of the old Globe.

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Gasoline Stations

Motor vehicle registration figures appear for the first time in The Canada Year Book for 1916-17. It was in this year that the Year Book accorded motor vehicles a new status as the most important means of transportation in Canada.

Article

Sharrell Music Publishers Ltd.

Sharrell Music Publishers Ltd (Empire Music Publishers Ltd 1948-79). Educational and popular-music publishing firm founded in 1948 in New Westminster, BC, by the teacher-arranger Carle Hodson (b Edmonton 1918; at one time also known as Karle Hodsin).

Article

Canadian Foreign Relations

Throughout its history, Canada has taken a series of steps to develop from a British colony into an independent nation. Both the First and Second World War were turning points; Canada’s military sacrifices gave it the strength and confidence to demand its own voice on the world stage. In the postwar era, Canada maintained its role in both Western and global alliances. (See NATO; NORAD; GATT.) However, economics have shaped Canadian diplomacy to a remarkable extent. Because of the United States’ singular importance to Canadian security and trade, relations with the US have dominated Canada’s foreign policy since Confederation.

Article

Kébec-Disc Inc

Kébec-Disc Inc. Recording company founded in Montreal in 1974. Guy Latraverse, its first president, was succeeded in 1976 by Gilles Talbot. After Talbot's accidental death in March 1982 the company ceased its activities, Latraverse having left Kébec-Disc a year earlier.

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XY Company

 XY Company (New North West Co), named after the marks used to distinguish its bales of goods from those of the NORTH WEST COMPANY, was a product of conflicts between NWC agents (led by Simon MCTAVISH) and NWC winterers, following the company's reorganization in 1795.