Search for "archaeology"
Dating in Archaeology
For those researchers working in the field of human history, the chronology of events remains a major element of reflection. Archaeologists have access to various techniques for dating archaeological sites or the objects found on those sites.
National Historic Sites in Canada
National historic sites are places that are recognized for their importance in Canadian history. National historic sites are designated by the federal government, upon recommendation from an organization called the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. In addition to sites, the board also designates people and events of national significance. These people and events are often commemorated by a plaque at a physical place. As of February 2020, there are 999 national historic sites in Canada. (See also Historic Sites in Canada; UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Canada).
Historic Sites in Canada
Historic sites are places that are recognized for their importance in Canadian history. Provincial or territorial historic sites are designated by provincial and territorial governments, while national historic sites are designated by the federal government. At the federal level, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada also designates people and events of national significance, in addition to sites. These people and events are often commemorated by a plaque at a physical place. Municipalities also often have the authority to designate historic sites of local significance, as do Indigenous organizations under self-government agreements. Finally, historic sites may be designated at more than one level (e.g., provincial and national). (See also National Historic Sites in Canada; UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Canada).
John William Dawson
John William Dawson, geologist, paleontologist, principal of McGill University (born 13 October 1820 in Pictou, NS; died 19 November 1899 in Montreal, QC). Dawson conducted an archaeological survey and recovery mission that revealed evidence of pre-European habitation on the island of Montreal. Though Dawson is generally credited with discovering the “lost” village of Hochelaga, subsequent investigations revealed that he might only have found evidence of a smaller, related settlement. Dawson is well-known in the geological community for finding a fossil of Hylonomus lyelli (the earliest known reptile). He also identified Eozoön canadense as a gigantic single-celled organism, though it is now considered to be a pseudofossil (fake fossil). Dawson is generally credited as being the first Canadian scientist of international renown, and for his transformative tenure as principal of McGill.
Indigenous Archaeology in Canada
Indigenous archaeology is a set of approaches to archaeology with, by and for Indigenous peoples. In particular, Indigenous archaeology is practised in colonial nations such as Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand. Indigenous archaeology emerged out of Indigenous peoples voicing their concerns about non-Indigenous archaeologists studying Indigenous pasts without engaging with Indigenous peoples in the present. Indigenous archaeology brings together Indigenous peoples and archaeologists through partnerships and collaborations. Together, they work to understand the past in ways that consider multiple perspectives and integrate Indigenous knowledge into archaeological interpretation.
300-Million-Year-Old Fossil Found in New Brunswick
Halifax high school students and amateur paleontologists Rowan Norrad and Luke Allen discovered a 300-million-year-old fossilized dragonfly wing near Grand Lake, New Brunswick. The length of the wing, about 10 cm, indicated a likely wingspan of 25 cm — much larger than contemporary dragonflies. The fossil was sent to the National Museum of Natural History in Paris for further analysis.
Selma Barkham (née Huxley), CM, ONL, historian, geographer (born 8 March 1927 in London, England; died 3 May 2020 in Chichester, England). Selma Barkham uncovered the history of Basque cod-fishing and whaling industries in Atlantic Canada (referred to by the Basques as Terra Nova), especially in the 16th century. This research filled a gap in the history of European activity in Canada between the time of Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain. Her work led to the establishment of Red Bay, Labrador as a national historic site and a UNESCO world heritage site.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Canada Interactive Map
The map below indicates the location of World Heritage Sites in Canada. Click on individual points to learn a site’s name, the year it was designated, and what the site includes. World Heritage Sites are created by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). There are 20 World Heritage Sites in Canada.