Canada’s federal multiculturalism policy was adopted in 1971 by Pierre Trudeau’s Liberal government. An unexpected by-product of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (1963–69),
multiculturalism was intended as a policy solution to manage both rising francophone nationalism, particularly in Quebec (see
French-Canadian Nationalism; The Quiet Revolution), and increasing cultural diversity across the country. Canada was the first country in the world to adopt a multiculturalism
policy. The federal multiculturalism policy marked its 50th anniversary in 2021.