Margaret Anne Wilson Thompson, human geneticist (born at Northwich, England 7 January 1920, died 3 November 2014 in Toronto, ON). She obtained a BA in 1943 from the University of Saskatchewan and a PhD in 1948 from the University of Toronto, where she studied under the pioneering human geneticist Norma Ford Walker. She contributed to human genetics through research on a variety of genetic disorders, particularly muscular dystrophy. She also taught at Western (1948-50), the University of Alberta (1950-63) and the University of Toronto (1963-85), where she supervised many graduate students and taught genetics to medical students.

In addition to numerous scientific articles, she has written a widely used text, Genetics in Medicine (1966, 5th ed 1991), originally coauthored with her husband, James Scott Thompson (1919-82), and then later with R.R. MacInnes and H.R. Willard. She founded a genetic counselling service at the University of Alberta Hospital in 1956 and joined the staff of Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children in 1963, where she practised until 1988. President of the Genetics Society of Canada in 1972, she was awarded its Presidential Citation in 1986 for outstanding contributions to genetics. Thompson was named a Member of the Order of Canada in 1987. She received the Founders Award from the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (1991) and the first Award of Excellence in Medical Genetics Education (1995), given by the American Society of Human Genetics. She is currently (1999) a professor emeritus with the University of Toronto and an honorary consultant with the Hospital for Sick Children.