Belgians are a national group composed of two main ethno-linguistic communities — the Dutch-speaking Flemings of northern and western Belgium and the French-speaking Walloons of southern Belgium — in addition to a small German-speaking population in eastern Belgium. Brussels, the capital region, is the only officially bilingual region of the country, although most of its inhabitants are francophone. Belgium, a member of the European Union, is a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament and independent judiciary that leads the world in innovative technological research and attracting foreign investment.
In the 2016 Census, there were 31,725 Canadians who indicated they were of Belgian origin with another 154,895 declaring they had some Belgian ancestry (for a total of 186,665 Canadians). One third of these people lived in Ontario, and a slightly smaller proportion in Québec. In the western provinces, Manitoba was the chief area of settlement in the early 1900s, but by the beginning of the 21st century British Columbia and Alberta each had a quarter of the Belgians in the region.
More than 11,000 respondents indicated "Flemish" instead of "Belgian," reflecting a growing Flemish nationalism in Belgium and an ethnic self-identity in a multicultural Canada. Walloons settled mostly in Québec and francophone communities in Canada where they identified with the social, political and culture of French-speaking Canadians. The larger Flemish population identified more readily with anglophone communities. The early Flemish immigrants were often fluent in French, but by the third generation in Canada the majority of their descendants were unilingual English.
Belgians have been involved in every aspect of Canada's development as missionaries, educators, businessmen, politicians, musicians and artists. Well-known Belgians in Canada have included Louis Hennepin, Jules Hone, Frantz-Jéhin Prume, Auguste Joseph de Bray, Gustave Francq, Ria Lenssens, François Héraly, Pierre Boogaerts, Charles Binamé and Lara Fabian.
Immigration History and Settlement in Canada
As early as 1859 the colony of the United Canadas (Province of Canada) had appointed a Select Committee on Immigration that extended to Belgians the assisted passages and grants of free land offered to British nationals. This laid the groundwork for subsequent policy in the new Dominion of Canada. Canada's first Immigration Act (1869) included Belgium among the "preferred countries" from which immigrants should be sought (see Immigration Policy). The first Dominion immigration officer in Europe was Edward Simaeys, whose office was in Antwerp. The most successful of all these officers was Désiré de Coeli, who began his extensive lectures and publicity in 1898.
Unlike many European countries, Belgium did not encourage its nationals to emigrate to relieve economic, demographic and social crises. Despite this, steamship companies such as the Red Star Line, subsidized by the government in Brussels, offered assisted passages to emigrants. Once in Canada, officials monitored the conditions of settlement and contractual agreements; where fraud was discovered, the Belgian government intervened diplomatically and paid for repatriation (see Deportation). To promote immigration, successful immigrants were recruited to write pamphlets and books for the Canadian government and Belgian officials and journalists were invited, at the Canadian government's expense, to view settlements and business opportunities with the hope of attracting industrious settlers and their capital.
Four major periods, or waves, of Belgian immigration are discernible. The first wave coincided with industrial unrest in Wallonia and population pressure in Flanders in the 1880s. This early wave was directed largely to Québec and Manitoba, which were both perceived as receptive francophone Catholic regions. Flemish farmers chose to move to the Eastern Townships of Québec and southern Manitoba, in the latter establishing the communities of Bruxelles, St. Alphonse and Mariapolis. Walloon glass workers began arriving in Ontario's nascent industry, while the miners took jobs in the coal mines of Nova Scotia and Vancouver Island. Walloon miners, staunch supporters of labour unions and socialist activity, became deeply involved in the labour disputes with the Dominion Coal Company in Cape Breton. In Springhill, Joseph Lavenne emerged as a militant leader and activist in the Socialist Party of Canada.
From Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, many miners moved on to Pennsylvania, where they encountered the same dangerous working conditions and anti-union sentiments, prompting them to return to Canada, where others joined them from Europe. On Vancouver Island they organized unions and protests and spearheaded the organization of the Miners Liberation League in 1912 to work for the release of detained strikers (see Labour Organization).
In Alberta coal mines, Léon Cabeaux, Frank Soulet, Joseph Lothier and Gustave Henry emerged as union leaders. During the Estevan Coal Miner’s Strike in 1931, the Belgian government provided more funds for the repatriation of miners who were either deceived by working conditions in Canada or had been ordered to be deported as a result of their militant activities.
The second wave of immigrants, beginning in 1896, was aided by a direct steamship link with Antwerp in 1903 and new legislation in 1906 encouraging them to play a leading role in establishing dairy farms (see Dairy Industry) around Winnipeg, fruit orchards in the Okanagan Valley, and market garden and sugar beet plantations in southwestern Ontario. In 1912, the Dominion Sugar Company began direct recruitment of Belgian field and factory workers for its Sugar Industry in southwestern Ontario. The Knight Sugar Company in southern Alberta did likewise. In 1897, the Belgo-Canadian Fruit Lands Company, an Antwerp company directed in the Okanagan by Raoul de Grelle and Ferdinand De Jardin, began developing extensive orchards under irrigation. A subsidiary organized in 1908, the Belgian Orchard Syndicate, built its own packing-house for the shipment of apples, stone fruits and vegetables. Belgian organization of the Vernon Orchard Company resulted in the expansion of commercial fruit (see Fruit Cultivation) and vegetable growing into the Vernon district. Flemings operated many of the dairies around Sherbrooke, Québec, and Winnipeg/St. Boniface, Manitoba, as well as creameries and cheese factories (see Cheese and cheese making) in both provinces. By the 1920s, Belgians had become chief dairymen with approximately 80 farms near Winnipeg. The Bossuyt, Nuyttens, Van Walleghem and Anseeuw families were active in the Manitoba Dairy Association for decades. The Bossuyt and Anseeuw farms were showplaces for foreign visitors.
Following the First World War, more than 14,000 immigrants arrived after the railway companies and the sugar beet manufacturers resumed direct recruitment. Tobacco companies launched a flue-cured tobacco industry on the sandy soils around Tillsonburg and Delhi, which attracted Belgians from the northern United States as well, and helped organize the Southern Ontario Flue-Cured Tobacco Growers' Association. Belgians figured prominently in market gardening and dairying in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia and the Richelieu Valley of Québec.
The last and largest wave from 1945 to 1990 saw new arrivals migrating to urban centres and established communities. Canadian immigration policy shifted in 1962 from an emphasis on preferred groups to a preference for individuals with desirable education, training and skills. Québec attracted about two-thirds of these Belgian immigrants, many of whom were professionals or skilled workers in biotechnology, aeronautics and computer science.
In 1888, the consul general in Montréal, Ferdinand van Bruyssel, organized a consortium of 14 Belgian companies into the Comptoir Belgo-Canadien, to supply central Canada with glass, rails, cement, and technical expertise in railway construction and public works projects. In the ensuing decades, other entrepreneurs such as Hubert Biermans and his Belgo-Canadian Paper Company, Alexis Nihon in marble and granite products, the Mirons in cement and concrete, the Simards in shipbuilding, and the Franki company in high-rise construction played key roles in the Québec economy.
The Commercial Treaty of 1924 accorded Belgium "most favoured nation" status. During the interwar years, Belgian banks financed the Canadian Block Coal Company in Alberta. In 1929, the consul in Vancouver, Léon Dupuis, organized the Canadian-Belgian Chamber of Commerce, importing rails, structural steel, wire, cement and glass via the Hudson’s Bay Railway route.
In 1945, Belgium became the third largest investor in the Canadian economy during the post-war period partially due to Petrofina (sold to Petro-Canada in 1981), Canadian Hydrocarbons Limited (acquired by Inter-city Gas in 1979), and Sogémines Development, which was renamed Genstar in 1968, who were important energy producers until the 1970s. Genstar merged with Inland Cement (now Lehigh Inland Cement) in 1965, and bought Seaspan International in 1969, which acquired Vancouver Drydock Company in 1991. Genstar was acquired by Imasco in 1986. Genstar's senior management formed American General and Newland Group, which acquired Genstar's land development division.
Belgian firms, such as Solvay, Union Minière du Haut Katanga, Katoen Natie and Arinso International, have made significant contributions to Canadian research and development and have received awards for their work. In 2016, there are about 50 Belgian subsidiaries in Canada, and the Belgian direct investments was worth 3.2 billion Canadian Dollars. Belgium is currently the 18th largest foreign direct investor in Canada.
In Québec, Belgians played an important role in the staffing and development of educational institutions. The University of Louvain served as a model for Université Laval. Belgian educators founded the École des hautes études commerciales (HEC Montréal), the École des arts décoratifs, and the École d'architecture, and reorganized the École polytechnique de Montréal in 1908. Provincial agricultural schools were modelled after the agricultural colleges at Vilvoorde and Gembloux in Belgium, which were also the source of instructors for the new schools. In one hand, Belgian educators generally favoured divesting the church of its control over education in Québec. On other, Belgians supported the Catholic separate school systems in Ontario, Saskatchewan and Alberta, and joined the fight for French instruction and Catholic schooling in the Manitoba School Question. The only ethnic institution was the Scheppers Institute (Sacred Heart College) in Swan Lake, Manitoba, that from 1919 to 1929 offered academic and agricultural courses in Flemish for boys.
In the late 20th century a number of Canadian universities developed cooperative programs and entered into exchange agreements with Belgian institutions of higher learning and research, notably with Leven Universiteit (University of Leuven) and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. However, in 2012 the Canadian government drastically reduced the funding of the International Association of Canadian Studies (see Canadian Studies) but the Association des Études québécoises compensated to some degree by launching comprehensive exchanges (faculty exchanges) and joint research with the Université de Liège and other research centres. In 2016, approximately 20 Canadian universities have close links with Belgian universities in areas such as humanities and social sciences, pure and health sciences.
Belgian contributions to cultural life, especially in Québec, have been numerous. Renowned musicians helped found the Montreal Symphonic Orchestra, the Société Canadienne d'Opérettes, Variétés lyriques and the Petits chanteurs à la Croix de Bois. The paintings of Henri Leopold Masson hang in galleries across Canada and Pierre Hayvaert's sculptures were exhibited in the Québec pavillon at Expo 67.
In 1925, André Castelein de la Lande was one of the three founders of the Cercle Molière, Canada's oldest professional theatre company; theatre groups including the Onder Ons drama club and Vlanderen Kerels were established in southwestern Ontario. The Société Lyrique de Gounod, the Belgian Club, and the Belgian Folkdancers in Manitoba helped maintain an interest in Belgian culture, and Arthur Verthé created Flemings in the World, an association that sponsored summer work projects promoting Flemish culture through language lessons, drama, cinema and dance.
Belgian Jesuit and Récollet missionaries were active in Canada in the 17th and 18th centuries, and by the 19th century Redemptorists and Capuchins (see Missions and Missionaries) were working in immigrant communities. Flemish Oblates worked with Aboriginal peoples in western provinces while Walloon Oblates worked among the Inuit. The Roman Catholic hierarchy included bishops such as Pierre-Herman Dosquet during the French regime (see New France), Charles-Jean Seghers and Jean-Baptiste Brondel in colonial British Columbia, Rémi J. De Roo. The most published and controversial evangelizer of the French period was the Walloon Récollet Louis Hennepin.
Anglophone and francophone parishes made an effort to provide communities with priests who spoke Flemish and French. Capuchins, originally from a monastery in Blenheim, served several Ontario parishes and opened a monastery in St. Boniface and Notre-Dame de Toutes Aides to serve Belgians, First Nations and Métis in northern Manitoba.
In the late 19th century, the University of Louvain provided the Pacific coastal region with missionaries and teachers who served the Aboriginal peoples and colonists of Victoria and New Westminster, British Columbia. Notably, Roger Vandersteene incorporated Cree spirituality and culture into his missionary responsibilities and created a Cree liturgy that incorporated Aboriginal symbolism and spirituality into traditional Catholic worship. Canadian bishops of Belgian origin were also involved in the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s, and supported the use of the vernacular in mass and the breviary, the update of pastoral care, and the promotion of biblical research and studies.
Social and Community Life
In 1903, Alphonse Gyhssens organized the Union Belge in Montréal to bring together Flemings and Walloons socially. Similar associations were formed in Toronto, Edmonton and Vancouver. The Belgian Club, founded in St. Boniface in 1905, established a mutual aid society and a credit union. At the popular level, Gustave Francq organized working-class clubs, food co-operatives and sports facilities for youth in Montréal and fought with some success for minimum wage laws and women's rights. Emigrating from an occupied country during two world wars, Belgium immigrants supported the Belgian Relief Fund and, along with people around the world, followed the investigation, led by Lord Bryce, into alleged atrocities committed during the First World War.
In 1962, the communities in the Richelieu Valley southeast of Montréal organized the Club Belgo-Canadien at Sabrevois. The clubs in St. Boniface, Delhi and Sabrevois were later opened to persons of all ethnic communities. Both Flemings and Walloons have integrated well into Québec francophone society. Elsewhere, Flemings have tended to identify with the dominant anglophone community while most Walloons have integrated with the francophone minorities.
Accustomed to democratic institutions, Belgian immigrants have participated in local and regional politics in Canada and have assumed leadership roles in farm organizations, labour unions, marketing boards, municipal councils (see Municipal Government), school boards, professional organizations, and politics. Belgians have integrated well into the multicultural communities in Canada and have made a significant impact by promoting agriculture, commerce, industry and their culture.
Both Flemings and Walloons integrated into mainstream society within two generations. Coming from a bilingual country that had undergone economic transformation and secularization, they easily adapted to the situation in Canada, including the ideological shift from anglo-conformity to multiculturalism. Also, many adopted the culture of other groups such as the Anglo-Québécois and Franco-Manitobans. Flemings joined with Dutch in Ontario to organize cultural and commercial projects just as the Walloons participated with francophones in their struggle for educational and cultural rights. In general, Belgians in Canada maintained their recreational, religious and social customs as individuals and families while participating in broad-based occupational and business organizations, labour unions and professional associations. They did not develop the ethnic institutions that many other ethnic groups organized as they found that existing institutions provided most of the services they required.