The Cariboo Mountains is the most northern range making up the Columbia Mountains. The Fraser River makes a big arc around the northern part of the range and the North Thompson River separates them from the Selkirk Mountains to the southeast. The highest peak is Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier at 3520 m. There are 4 interconnected provincial parks within the range: Wells Grey, Bowron, Cariboo Mountains and Cariboo River. The area is noted for its canoe routes and helicopter skiing.

Gold was found here during the Cariboo Gold Rush. The most productive area for gold was from the quartz intrusions in the northeastern corner of the range. Barkerville is a restored gold-mining town