Clarington, Ontario, incorporated as a municipality in 1974, population 84 548 (2011c), 77 820 (2006c). The Municipality of Clarington is located on the north shore of Lake Ontario 80 km east of Toronto within the Regional Municipality of Durham. It was first incorporated as the Town of Newcastle in 1974 by the amalgamation of the Village of Newcastle, the Town of Bowmanville, Clarke and Darlington Townships and the police village of Orono. It was renamed the Municipality of Clarington in 1993, where Clarington is a portmanteau of the names of the 2 former townships. The name Newcastle was granted by the post office in 1845, causing some confusion as another townsite to the east had adopted the same name. It received its present name in 1994.
Initially the town was outstripped by nearby Bond Head, but in 1849 Daniel MASSEY bought out his partner F.R. Vaughan and moved his foundry to Newcastle. Eventually it would become one of the largest farm machinery manufacturers in the world. In 1851 Bond Head and Newcastle merged under the latter name; the other Newcastle became Port of Brighton. In the 19th century Newcastle was a major port for both lake freight and passenger traffic but railway competition and American tariffs ended this. Newcastle was also the site of one of the world's first fish hatcheries (established 1868).
The first actual settlement of Darlington took place in 1794. Many families from the US were induced by the land bounty of Lieutenant-Governor John Graves SIMCOE.
In the 20th century Clarington is a tourism centre and serves as home for many residents who work in Oshawa or eastern Toronto. Besides members of the Massey family, other notables include Joseph Atkinson, eventually owner of the Toronto Star and founder of the Atkinson Charitable Foundation.