Nègres blancs d'Amérique (1968), a Marxist analysis of Québec history and a program for the future, was written under the guise of autobiography by Pierre Vallières while he was confined in a Manhattan jail for FLQ activities. It dramatizes his impoverished, frustrated childhood during the Duplessis era as the son of working-class parents in Longueuil-Annexe; his checkered career as a philosophy student, office worker, Franciscan postulant, writer and friend of the poet Gaston Miron and of the intelligentsia associated with Cité Libre, Parti Pris and Le Devoir; and his "conversion" to Marxism and Front de Libération du Québec involvement following a trip to France and Spain. To Vallières, Québec's working class reveals the characteristics of a colonized people; "white niggers" denotes a condition of being which he felt could be altered only through violent revolution. The work was revised and expanded in 1969, and it was translated in 1971 as White N--s of America.