Dawson, George Mercer

 George Mercer Dawson, geologist (b at Pictou, NS 1 Aug 1849; d at Ottawa 2 Mar 1901), son of Sir John William DAWSON. He studied at McGill, then at the Royal School of Mines, London. His superior mental and observational powers became widely known from his work as a geologist and botanist to the International Boundary Commission, which surveyed the FORTY-NINTH PARALLEL from Lake of the Woods to the Rockies 1873-75. He accurately reported on the geology, mineral resources, agriculture and climate, including locust invasions, of the western plains.

In 1875 he joined the GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA. His survey of BC strongly influenced government decisions on the proposed route of the CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. A charter ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA member (1882), Dawson by 1883 was assistant director of the GSC. In 1887 he surveyed the Alaska boundary at the Yukon River and investigated gold discoveries there. In 1892 he became British commissioner on Bering Sea natural resources, and in 1896, a member of the Ethnological Survey of Canada. He was also GSC director 1895-1901.

Dawson's brilliance in systematic mapping provided a sound basis for understanding the geology and mineral resources of much of northern and western Canada, and offered reliable guidance to mining, ranching, agricultural and lumbering industries. He also encouraged investigation and development of western coal and petroleum resources. The first comprehensive work on Canada's physiography, Descriptive Sketch of the Physical Geography and Geology of the Dominion of Canada, was published by Dawson and A.R.C. Selwyn (1884).