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Massey Hall is Canada’s oldest and most venerated concert hall. Opened in 1894, it was the home of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra and the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir until 1982. The site of many historic events and performances, it has been repeatedly voted Canada’s Best Live Music Venue Over 1,500 Seats and Venue of the Year by Canadian music industry associations. It is a National Historic Site and a heritage site in the City of Toronto.

Early History

Massey Music Hall, as it was known until 1933, was built by industrialist Hart Massey as a gift to the city of Toronto in memory of his son Charles Albert Massey, and to foster “an interest in music, education, temperance, industry, good citizenship, patriotism, philanthropy, and religion.” It was designed by Cleveland-based Canadian architect Sidney R. Badgely, and constructed of brick under the supervision of Toronto architect George M. Miller at a cost of $150,000.

It opened on 14 June 1894, with a performance of Handel’s Messiah by a 500-member chorus and the 70-member Grand Festival Orchestra, conducted by Frederick Torrington. Seating consisted of an orchestra, two balconies, six private boxes, stage boxes, and tiered onstage seating, with a capacity of 3,500.

Until the 1920s, when other cities began to erect concert halls, Massey Hall was the only building in Canada designed expressly for musical performances. It became the home of the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir in 1895, housed the early incarnations of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra (TSO), 1906–18, and was the permanent home of the TSO, 1923–82.


The first major structural changes were undertaken in 1933, which reduced seating to the current 2,765 by enlarging the lobby and adding the balcony lounge. Also in 1933, the building was officially recognized by its popular name, Massey Hall. A second renovation, undertaken in 1948, lowered the stage and replaced the wooden floors of the stage, basement, and orchestra with reinforced concrete. In 1955, after a large chunk of plaster fell from the ceiling while the Hall was empty, the entire ceiling was re-plastered and reinforced with a strong wire mesh. The interior was refurbished in the early 1980s, and the hall was air-conditioned in 1989 in preparation for a seven-month run of the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical Cats.

Function and Operation

The hall’s acoustics have been praised by audiences for its warmth and criticized by orchestral musicians for its deceptiveness. (A TSO musician once said that players could not hear each other clearly because of reverberation, and that consequently a focused ensemble was difficult to achieve.) Roy Thomson Hall took over the main functions of Massey Hall — namely, the performances of the TSO and the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir — when it was completed in 1982. Johnny Cowell’s “A Farewell Tribute to the Grand Old Lady of Shuter Street” (see link below) was played during the TSO’s final concert at Massey Hall on 4 June 1982.

In succeeding years, the number of events diminished to an average of two or three per week. Although CJRT Orchestra held its annual concert series there from 1982–91, the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony Orchestra, with Anton Kuerti, performed a three-concert series in 1986, and Taflemusik began its annual Messiah performances there in 1987, rock concerts became the mainstay of Massey Hall’s bookings, which included concerts by pop performers, ethnic ensembles, school choirs and ensembles, and a variety of community-based events.

The board of the Corporation of Massey Hall and Roy Thomson Hall administers both facilities, each of which has continued to function independent of any direct government subsidies. Massey Hall’s original archive of records, photographs and playbills was destroyed by flood in 1943. The contemporary records of Massey Hall are maintained as part of the archives of Roy Thomson Hall.

Notable Events and Performances

A selection of some of the more memorable events at “the Grand Old Lady of Shuter Street” (the nickname Vincent Massey gave the hall in 1953) indicates the range of its use.

There were notable appearances by Paderewski (1896), Patti (1903), Emma Albani (1903, 1906), Caruso (1908), Tetrazzini (1912), Galli-Curci (1917), Heifetz (1918, the year of his teenage New York debut), and Kreisler (1934); speeches by Winston Churchill (1900, 1901), Carrie Nation (1901), Nellie McClung (1919), and Lloyd George (1919); a concert by the London Symphony Orchestra under Nikisch (1912); the wedding of the Canadian Aboriginal athlete Tom Longboat (1908); an exhibition boxing bout with Jack Dempsey (1919); and a performance of Elgar’s The Dream of Gerontius by the Sheffield Choir, conducted by the composer (1911).

There were also movies, silent and sound; regular boxing matches; visits by touring opera, ballet, and theatre companies; annual May Festival Concerts (begun in 1894) by Toronto school choirs; countless folk, rock, jazz, choral, and symphonic concerts; recording sessions by the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir during the 1950s; and performances by the world’s finest orchestras, including the Berlin, Vienna and New York Philharmonics, the Cleveland and Philadelphia Orchestras, the Concertgebouw of Amsterdam and the Royal Philharmonic of London

Oscar Peterson and a 13-year-old Glenn Gould made their Massey Hall debuts within weeks of each other in March 1946. A legendary jazz concert at Massey Hall on 15 May 1953 marked the only time that Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Bud Powell, Charles Mingus and Max Roach ever played together (it is considered by some to be the greatest jazz concert ever). In 1962, the CBC Symphony Orchestra and the Festival Singers of Canada performed Stravinsky’s A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer and 8 Instrumental Miniatures, conducted by the composer. Neil Young’s solo acoustic performance on 19 January 1971 was released in 2007 as Live at Massey Hall 1971 and became a No. 1 album in Canada.

On 9 December 1973, Luciano Pavarotti made his Toronto debut in front of a packed house that had paid a record-breaking $50 per ticket. On 21 February 1974, Maria Callas and Giuseppe Di Stefano performed as part of their farewell tour. In 1975, the hall was used for a week to shoot a film about Bob Dylan that was never released. In June 1976, Canadian rock trio Rush recorded their first live album, All the World’s a Stage, which would go on to sell over 1 million copies.

The Centennial Celebration Concert on 14 June 1994 — commemorating the building’s 100th anniversary — featured the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, conductors Mario Bernardi, Victor Feldbrill, and Elmer Iseler, contralto Maureen Forrester, soprano Lois Marshall, rock group Blue Rodeo and humorist Dave Broadfoot. Gordon Lightfoot, the most frequently appearing artist in the Hall’s history, marked his return from illness in May 2005 by resuming his regular spring concert at Massey Hall (“the centre of my universe as a musician,” he has said), a tradition for the singer that stretched back to 1967.

Commemorations and Designations

John B. Withrow, son of one Massey Hall’s early managers, wrote a regular series of articles beginning in 1982 about the long, distinguished history of the hall for the periodical Bravo. William Kilbourn’s book, Intimate Grandeur: One Hundred Years of Massey Hall (1894–1994), was published in 1994.

The Historical Sites and Monuments Board of Canada placed a plaque on the exterior of the building in 1985 to honour Massey Hall, and another in 1989 to honour Sir Ernest MacMillan. A third plaque was installed in 1994 to commemorate the building’s centennial. It reads in part: “Since its opening in 1894, Massey Hall has served as one of Canada’s most important cultural institutions…. Although criticized for its plain exterior, the concert hall has earned widespread renown for its outstanding acoustics.”

Massey Hall was named a heritage site by the City of Toronto on 20 June 1973 and was designated a National Historic Site on 15 June 1981.

See also: Toronto Feature: Massey Hall

A version of this entry originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada.