timeline

Politics and Government

This timeline highlights events and people related to politics and governance in Canada.

Parliament Buildings in Quebec City, 2012.

October 08, 1612

Politics and Government 

Bourbon Named Governor of New France

Louis XIII named Charles de Bourbon, Comte de Soissons, as his lieutenant-general in New France. Bourbon chose Samuel de Champlain as his lieutenant on Oct 15.

March 12, 1618

Politics and Government 

Louis XIII Initiates Colony

King Louis XIII instructed Samuel de Champlain and his partners to establish a viable colony in New France.

May 07, 1620

Port-Royal (Champlain's Drawing)

Politics and Government 

Champlain Becomes Governor

Louis XIII wrote to Samuel de Champlain, commissioning him to govern New France and to do so in accordance with the laws and customs of France. From that point, Champlain devoted himself almost exclusively to administration and his career as an explorer ended.

September 21, 1621

Politics and Government 

Ordinances Published (Qué)

The first ordinances of Québec were published, but these documents have never been found.

May 18, 1642

Politics and Government 

Maisonneuve Founds Ville-Marie

Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve founded Ville-Marie, which was destined to become the most important trading post in New France and the future city of Montréal. Maisonneuve served as governor until 1665.

February 25, 1651

Acadian Village

Politics and Government 

La Tour Made Governor

Charles de La Tour was made governor of Acadia.

September 18, 1663

Politics and Government 

Sovereign Council Created

A royal edict established the Sovereign Council of Québec, providing for civil government in the new royal colony of New France.

April 06, 1672

Governor Frontenac

Politics and Government 

Frontenac Appointed Governor

Louis de Buade, Compte de Frontenac, was appointed Governor of New France. He served for 10 years and then from 1689 to 1698.

July 10, 1755

Vaudreuil, Pierre

Politics and Government 

Vaudreuil Begins Term

The Marquis de Vaudreuil began serving as the last Governor of New France.

October 02, 1758

Province House, Halifax

Politics and Government 

First Meeting of an Elected Assembly in Canada

The first meeting of an elected assembly in what is now Canada took place in Halifax. The assembly's 22 elected members attended.

September 22, 1760

Politics and Government 

Amherst's Proclamation

A proclamation by Governor General Amherst outlined the main aspects of the government of Canada, which was divided into three military districts.

November 21, 1763

Politics and Government 

Murray Becomes Governor

James Murray was named Governor of Québec. However, his willingness to allow French law and custom in the courts made him unpopular and led to his recall in April 1766. He left Canada in June.

October 26, 1768

Politics and Government 

Carleton Becomes Governor

Guy Carleton, 1st Baron of Dorchester, became the governor of Québec, succeeding James Murray.

June 28, 1769

Cavendish Beach

Politics and Government 

Government for PEI

A separate government was established for St John Island, which was not named Prince Edward Island until 1799.

May 01, 1775

Politics and Government 

Québec Act

The Québec Act took effect, enlarging Québec's boundaries and the freedoms of its French inhabitants.

August 17, 1775

Politics and Government 

First Council at Québec

The first session of the legislative council at Québec convened.

August 16, 1784

Politics and Government 

New Brunswick Separates

New Brunswick was established as a separate colony from Nova Scotia.

August 26, 1784

Politics and Government 

Cape Breton Island Made Colony

Cape Breton Island was made a separate colony from Nova Scotia.

September 11, 1784

Politics and Government 

St John I Rejoins Nova Scotia

Saint John Island (PEI) was reunited with Nova Scotia, though it retained a separate local government.

January 09, 1786

Politics and Government 

First Legislature in NB

The first legislature of New Brunswick, elected in 1785, opened at Saint John.

June 10, 1791

Constitutional Act, 1791

Politics and Government 

Constitutional Act

The Constitutional Act was enacted by the British Parliament, dividing the Province of Canada into two parts, Upper and Lower Canada.

June 11, 1792

Politics and Government 

First Elections in Lower Canada

The first elections were held in Lower Canada. Anyone over 21, including women, who owned property and had not been convicted of a criminal offence could vote.

February 01, 1796

York, Upper Canada

Politics and Government 

York Becomes Capital

York (the future Toronto) became the new capital of Upper Canada.

June 03, 1799

Cavendish Beach

Politics and Government 

PEI Named

The name of Island of Saint John was formally changed to Prince Edward Island.

April 11, 1807

Hart & Papineau

Politics and Government 

Hart Elected

Ezekiel Hart was the first Jewish politician to be elected in Québec (Lower Canada at the time), in Trois-Rivières. The session of the Assembly was coming to an end and Hart had to wait until January 1808 to be sworn in. He eschewed the Christian Oath of Office and was denied his seat.

February 01, 1808

Politics and Government 

Jewish MLA Criticized

Members of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada criticized the swearing-in of Jewish member Ezekiel Hart. He refused to take the Christian Oath of Office, and instead wore his hat and substituted the word Jewish for Christian. Assembly members disputed his oath as invalid.

February 20, 1808

Politics and Government 

Ezekiel Hart Expelled

The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada voted to expel Jewish member Ezekiel Hart. Ironically, he had been elected by a riding whose voters were largely Canadian and Catholic and was expelled by an assembly whose majority was also Canadian and Catholic.

June 14, 1808

Politics and Government 

Le Canadien Publishers Demoted

Finding Le Canadien to be a “libellous and seditious” publication, Governor Craig demoted Le Vasseur Borgia and other proprietors of the newspaper from their roles in the government.

April 18, 1809

Politics and Government 

Judges Ineligible to Vote

The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada voted on a resolution that would make judges ineligible to vote in elections.

February 22, 1810

Politics and Government 

De Bonne Expelled

The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada voted to expel Pierre-Amable de Bonne for having assumed two public offices at once, Member of the House of Assembly and judge.

March 17, 1810

Politics and Government 

Le Canadien Ceases Publication

Governor Sir James Craig stopped Le Canadien's presses. Its owners were arrested on charges of treason.

May 01, 1810

Politics and Government 

Craig Recommends Suspending Constitution

Governor Sir James Henry Craig recommended to the British Parliament that the constitution be suspended and Upper and Lower Canada reunited, a recommendation that was reiterated in Lord Durham's 1839 report.

September 06, 1814

Politics and Government 

Birth of Sir George-Étienne Cartier

Sir George-Étienne Cartier was born to a wealthy family of grain exporters and millers in Saint-Antoine, Lower Canada. A key architect and Father of Confederation, Sir George-Étienne Cartier led Québec into Confederation and helped negotiate the entry of the Northwest Territories, Manitoba, and British Columbia into Canada.

January 21, 1815

Louis-Joseph Papineau, politician

Politics and Government 

Papineau Elected

Louis-Joseph Papineau was elected speaker of the Legislative Assembly.

April 12, 1820

Dalhousie, George, Earl of

Politics and Government 

Dalhousie Named Governor

The Earl of Dalhousie was named governor in chief of British North America.

October 16, 1820

Politics and Government 

Cape Breton Island Rejoined

Cape Breton Island rejoined the colony of Nova Scotia.

June 08, 1826

William Lyon Mackenzie

Politics and Government 

Mackenzie's Office Raided

Members of the Family Compact raided the offices of William Lyon Mackenzie's newspaper, the Colonial Advocate, at York.

May 02, 1828

Politics and Government 

Canada Committee Formed

Canada Committee, a British parliamentary committee, was established to settle political disputes that were paralysing government in Lower Canada and creating difficulties in Upper Canada.

January 10, 1831

Politics and Government 

NB Border Decision

The King of the Netherlands announced his decision in the dispute over the boundary of New Brunswick and Maine. The US and Britain both rejected it.

March 31, 1831

Port of Montreal

Politics and Government 

Québec and Montréal Incorporated

Québec City and Montréal were incorporated as cities.

January 01, 1832

William Lyon Mackenzie

Politics and Government 

W.L. Mackenzie Re-elected

William Lyon Mackenzie was re-elected 119 votes to 1 after having been expelled from the Upper Canada Assembly for the fifth time.

January 01, 1833

Politics and Government 

First Assembly in Newfoundland

The first representative assembly met.

February 13, 1833

Hamilton in the Early 1850s

Politics and Government 

Hamilton Incorporated

Hamilton, Upper Canada, was incorporated as a city.

January 01, 1834

Louis-Joseph Papineau (Daguerrotype), politician

Politics and Government 

Ninety-Two Resolutions

The Ninety-Two Resolutions were adopted by the Assembly of Lower Canada, 56 to 32, expressing grievances against the colonial administration.

March 06, 1834

Toronto, Historical

Politics and Government 

Toronto Incorporated

The city of Toronto (formerly York), Upper Canada, was incorporated.

June 24, 1834

Politics and Government 

St-Jean-Baptiste Society

The St-Jean-Baptiste Society was founded by journalist Ludger Duvernay, who wanted to stimulate a nationalist spirit among his compatriots and encourage them to defend their linguistic and cultural heritage.

January 01, 1835

Joseph Howe

Politics and Government 

Howe Prints Letter

Joseph Howe printed a letter to the editor accusing the magistrates of Halifax of lining their pockets with excessive fines.

October 23, 1837

Louis-Joseph Papineau (Daguerrotype), politician

Politics and Government 

Papineau Addresses Rally

Louis-Joseph Papineau spoke to some 4000 at Saint-Charles at which the Patriotes more or less declared the independence of the Six Counties and their willingness to resort to arms if necessary.

November 06, 1837

Politics and Government 

Street Fight in Montreal

Thomas Brown led the Fils de la Liberté in a street fight with members of the English-Canadian Doric Club in Montréal, a prelude to the Rebellions.

November 23, 1837

Rebellions of 1837, Lower Canada

Politics and Government 

Battle of Saint-Denis

General Charles Gore and government forces suffered a minor defeat by Patriote forces at Saint-Denis.

November 25, 1837

Politics and Government 

Patriotes Crushed

The Patriotes were crushed by government forces at St-Charles with 56 dead; Papineau fled to the US.

December 07, 1837

William Lyon Mackenzie

Politics and Government 

Montgomery's Tavern

About 1000 government loyalists marched from Toronto to Montgomery's Tavern, where they easily routed Mackenzie's rebels.

December 14, 1837

Politics and Government 

Chenier Killed

Patriote leader Jean-Olivier Chénier was killed in combat at St-Eustache.

December 14, 1837

Rebellions of 1837, Lower Canada

Politics and Government 

Battle of St-Eustache

Sir John Colborne captured St-Eustache after fierce resistance by the Patriotes during the Lower Canada Rebellion.

February 10, 1838

Battle of Saint-Eustache

Politics and Government 

Constitution Suspended

The Constitution of 1791 was suspended in Lower Canada following the 1837 Rebellion. An "authoritarian" political body, the Special Council, was appointed in its stead. The second Rebellion in Lower Canada soon followed.

March 30, 1838

Lord Durham

Politics and Government 

Durham Appointed

The Earl of Durham was appointed governor-in-chief of British North America and commissioner to investigate the causes of the rebellions. He served from May 29 to November 1.

July 04, 1838

Nelson, Wolfred

Politics and Government 

Nelson Deported

Former House of Assembly member Wolfred Nelson was deported to Bermuda, along with 8 other Patriotes, following the Lower Canada Rebellion.

November 04, 1838

Politics and Government 

Second Rebellion in Lower Canada

Robert Nelson and Cyrille Côté led a 2nd rebellion in Lower Canada. Côté's men fled after a skirmish at Lacolle; Nelson retreated to Odelltown, north of the Vermont border, where he was defeated by Charles Taylor on November 9.

January 18, 1839

Battle of Saint-Eustache

Politics and Government 

Rebels Hanged

Rebels were hanged at Montréal for their part in the Rebellions of 1837.

February 08, 1839

Politics and Government 

Aroostook War

New Brunswick and Maine clashed over lumbering in what became known as the Aroostook War (sometimes called the Pork and Beans War), over the undefined border.

February 15, 1839

Politics and Government 

Patriote Rebels Hanged

Five Patriotes, followers of Louis-Joseph Papineau, were hung at the Pied-du-Courant Prison following a trial for treason and murder.

February 13, 1841

Kingston City Hall

Politics and Government 

Kingston Chosen Capital

Kingston, Canada West, was chosen capital of the United Canadas. It only remained the capital until 1843.

April 10, 1841

St Paul's Church, Halifax

Politics and Government 

Halifax Incorporated

Halifax was incorporated as a city.

June 14, 1841

Politics and Government 

First Parliament in Canadas

The first session of the first Parliament of the United Canadas opened at Kingston, Canada West.

September 16, 1842

Baldwin & LaFontaine

Politics and Government 

La Fontaine-Baldwin Cabinet

The first La Fontaine-Baldwin cabinet was formed in the Province of Canada. The partnership led to the development of responsible government across the country.

September 26, 1842

Sir Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine

Politics and Government 

First Reform Council

Robert Baldwin and Louis LaFontaine organized the first Reform executive council in Canada.

May 10, 1844

Port of Montreal

Politics and Government 

Capital Moves to Montreal

The capital of Canada was moved from Kingston to Montréal, Canada East.

December 17, 1844

Politics and Government 

Institut Canadien Formed

Jean-Baptiste-Éric Dorion and L.-J. Papineau helped to found the Institut canadien.

May 26, 1846

St. John's Town and Harbour

Politics and Government 

Responsible Government in Newfoundland

Public meetings at St John's, Newfundland, adopted resolutions in favour of responsible government.

February 02, 1848

Responsible Government

Politics and Government 

Responsible Government in Nova Scotia

James Boyle Uniake became leader of a new Reform government. Nova Scotia was thus the first colony in the British Empire in which responsible government was in effect. Responsible government meant that a colony enjoyed complete self-government in domestic affairs and that a government ruled only with the support of the majority of the elected Assembly (the origins of today's cabinet government).

March 04, 1848

Robert Baldwin

Politics and Government 

Reform Forms Government

Governor General Lord Elgin called on LaFontaine and Baldwin, as leaders of the Reform majority, to form the new executive council in the Province of Canada. They were sworn in on March 11.

April 25, 1849

Montréal Riots

Politics and Government 

Parliament Buildings Burned

The Parliament Buildings in Montréal were burned down in riots protesting Lord Elgin's signing of the Rebellion Losses Bill. The seat of government was removed from Montréal and the Parliament met alternatively in Toronto and Québec City.

April 25, 1849

James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, politician

Politics and Government 

Rebellion Losses Bill

Lord Elgin gave assent to the Rebellion Losses Bill, in effect the first acceptance of the principle of responsible government, over violent Tory opposition. A Tory-inspired mob burned the Parliament buildings that day.

October 10, 1849

Politics and Government 

Annexation Manifesto

Acute economic depression in Canada led to a short-lived agitation for annexation to the United States.

April 25, 1851

Politics and Government 

PEI Gets Responsible Government

PEI obtained responsible government, with George Coles as premier.

May 16, 1851

Politics and Government 

James Douglas Appointed Governor

James Douglas was appointed governor and vice-admiral of the colony of Vancouver Island.

August 30, 1851

Politics and Government 

First Council on Vancouver I

The legislative council of Vancouver Island held its first session.

June 06, 1853

Politics and Government 

Gavazzi Riots

Riots occurred in Québec against a former Italian priest, Alessandro Gavazzi; another riot in Montréal on June 9 left 10 dead when troops fired on the crowd.

January 01, 1855

Ottawa, 1857

Politics and Government 

Ottawa Incorporated

Ottawa was incorporated as a city.

January 27, 1855

Taché, Sir Étienne-Paschal

Politics and Government 

Liberal-Conservative Ministry

Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché formed a ministry with A.N. MacNab. After MacNab resigned in May 1856, Taché joined John A. Macdonald in a ministry that sealed the alliance of Upper Canadian Conservatives and Canadien Liberals in a unified party.

April 17, 1855

Early Charlottetown

Politics and Government 

Charlottetown Incorporated

Charlottetown, PEI, was incorporated as a city.

July 14, 1855

Politics and Government 

La Capricieuse Welcomed

La Capricieuse, the first French naval vessel to visit Canada since the Conquest, received a tumultuous welcome at Québec.

August 12, 1856

Politics and Government 

Vancouver Island's House of Assembly Opens

The first elected House of Assembly of the Colony of Vancouver Island opened. Only 43 colonists owned enough land to qualify as voters.

December 28, 1857

Politics and Government 

Crown Controls Mineral Rights

Governor James Douglas of Vancouver Island proclaimed the Crown's control of mineral rights on the mainland to ensure it remained under British control after American gold seekers began to descend upon the Fraser River.

December 31, 1857

Ottawa, 1857

Politics and Government 

Ottawa Chosen Capital

Queen Victoria announced that she had chosen Ottawa to be the new capital of Canada. It became official on September 24, 1859.

August 02, 1858

Politics and Government 

Brown-Dorion Cabinet Formed

Clear Grit leader George Brown formed a short-lived government with Parti Rouge leader Antoine-Aimé Dorion in Canada East. It was defeated two days later.

November 19, 1858

Politics and Government 

Douglas Appointed Governor Of BC

At Fort Langley, Judge Matthew Begbie read aloud the Queen's commission making James Douglas the governor of the new colony of British Columbia.

July 16, 1860

Politics and Government 

New Westminster Incorporated

Named by Queen Victoria, the "Royal City" of New Westminster - and first capital of BC - was incorporated.

July 19, 1862

Politics and Government 

Stikine Territory Organized

The Stikine River region of BC was removed from HBC authority and organized as Stikine (or Stickeen) Territory.

August 02, 1862

Politics and Government 

Victoria Incorporated

Victoria was incorporated as a city.

May 08, 1863

Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada's First Prime Minister

Politics and Government 

Sicotte-Macdonald Defeated

The Sicotte-Sandfield Macdonald ministry was defeated in the Assembly of the Province of Canada after only a year in power.

March 21, 1864

Taché, Sir Étienne-Paschal

Politics and Government 

Taché-Macdonald Ministry

The Sandfield Macdonald-Sicotte government was replaced by Taché-John A. Macdonald in the United Canadas.

June 22, 1864

Politics and Government 

Great Coalition Formed

The Great Coalition was formed. Reform leader George Brown joined a coalition with John A. Macdonald's Conservatives and George-Étienne Cartier's Bleus, starting the process of Confederation in the Province of Canada. The ministers of the Great Coalition were sworn in on June 30.

February 20, 1865

Parliament Buildings (Original)

Politics and Government 

Vote for Confederation

The legislative council of the Province of Canada adopted an address urging the Imperial Parliament to pass legislation to achieve the union of British North America. The Assembly adopted the address on March 11.

December 04, 1866

Politics and Government 

London Conference

Sixteen delegates from the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick met with the British government in London, England. During the three month conference, delegates reviewed the Québec Resolutions — creating a document that would form the basis of the British North America Act — chose "Canada" as the name of the new country and designated it a Dominion.

March 18, 1867

Politics and Government 

BC Resolution on Confederation Passed

Amor De Cosmos' resolution calling for "the admission of BC into Confederation on fair and equitable terms" was given unanimous support by the colony's legislative council.

June 01, 1867

Politics and Government 

Monck Becomes First GG

Sir Charles Stanley, Viscount Monck, was commissioned the first governor general of Canada.

July 01, 1867

Western Settlement

Politics and Government 

Canada Comes Into Existence

The Dominion of Canada came into existence, consisting of Ontario, Québec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

July 01, 1867

Politics and Government 

Belleau Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Sir Narcisse-Fortunat Belleau was appointed Québec''s first lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 11 February 1873.

July 15, 1867

Politics and Government 

Chauveau Becomes Premier

Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau, leader of the provincial Conservative Party, became Québec''s first premier.

August 07, 1867

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win First Majority

In the first general election after Confederation, the Conservatives won a majority with 101 seats to the Liberals' 80; Sir John A. Macdonald, who had been chosen prime minister by the Governor General when Canada was created, remained prime minister.

November 06, 1867

Parliament Buildings (Original)

Politics and Government 

Canada's First Parliament

The first session of Canada's first parliament opened.

December 17, 1867

Politics and Government 

BC Legislature

The BC legislature met for the first time in Victoria.

April 07, 1868

Thomas D'Arcy McGee

Politics and Government 

D'Arcy McGee Assassinated

Thomas D'Arcy McGee, an MP and Father of Confederation, was shot and killed by suspected Fenian James Patrick Whelan while returning to his Ottawa home in one of Canada's few political assassinations.

December 01, 1869

Constitutional Act, 1791

Politics and Government 

HBC Surrenders Rupert's Land

The Hudson's Bay Company surrendered Rupert's Land to the Canadian government.

December 23, 1869

Louis Riel and the Provisional Government

Politics and Government 

Riel's Provisional Government

Louis Riel issued a Declaration of the people of Rupert's Land and the Northwest and became head of the provisional government of Red River.

January 19, 1870

Donald Alexander Smith, railroad financier

Politics and Government 

Smith Meets Settlers

Donald Smith met with settlers at Fort Garry during the Red River Rebellion to present Canada's position on the transfer of the territory from the Hudson's Bay Company to Dominion ownership.

March 03, 1870

Execution of Thomas Scott

Politics and Government 

Scott Sentenced to Death

A Métis court martial sentenced Thomas Scott to death. He was executed by firing squad at Fort Garry the following day, causing a furor in Ontario.

July 15, 1870

Manitoba Coat of Arms

Politics and Government 

Manitoba Joins Confederation

The Manitoba Act went into effect, making Manitoba Canada's fifth province.

July 15, 1870

Rupert, Prince

Politics and Government 

Transfer of Rupert's Land

The British Crown officially transferred Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to Canada. These lands comprise present-day Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut, and northern parts of Ontario and Québec.

March 10, 1871

Manitoba Legislature Building

Politics and Government 

Manitoba's First Council

The first legislative council of Manitoba sat for the first time.

May 17, 1871

Politics and Government 

New Brunswick Schools

The New Brunswick government passed the Common Schools Act to strengthen and reform the school system. At the same time, it abandoned an informal system of separate schools that had grown up since the 1850s.

July 20, 1871

British Columbia Coat of Arms

Politics and Government 

British Columbia Joins Confederation

British Columbia entered Confederation as the sixth province. The legislature met for the first time after Confederation on 15 February 1872.

August 14, 1871

Politics and Government 

Trutch Installed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Sir Joseph William Trutch was installed as the new province of BC's 1st lieutenant-governor.

November 14, 1871

Politics and Government 

McCreight sworn in as BC's 1st Premier

John Foster McCreight was sworn in as BC's 1st premier.

July 20, 1872

Sir John A. Macdonald

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Second Majority

In the federal election, the Conservatives won a majority with 103 seats to the Liberals' 97; Sir John A. Macdonald remained prime minister.

October 31, 1872

Sir Oliver Mowat

Politics and Government 

Mowat Takes Office

Oliver Mowat assumed office as premier of Ontario and leader of the Ontario Liberal Party; he remained premier until 1896.

December 23, 1872

Politics and Government 

De Cosmos Appointed BC's Premier

Amor De Cosmos was sworn in as BC's 2nd premier.

February 17, 1873

Politics and Government 

Caron Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable René-Édouard Caron was appointed Québec''s second lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 13 December 1876.

February 27, 1873

Politics and Government 

Ouimet Becomes Premier

Gédéon Ouimet, leader of the provincial Conservative party, became Québec''s second premier.

April 02, 1873

Pacific Scandal Political Cartoon

Politics and Government 

Pacific Scandal Revealed

The Liberals broke news of the Pacific Scandal in Parliament. A spate of damaging letters and telegrams appeared in Liberal newspapers in July.

May 20, 1873

Politics and Government 

Death of Sir George-É. Cartier

Sir George-Étienne Cartier died of Bright's Disease in London, England.

June 26, 1873

Red Soil, PEI

Politics and Government 

PEI Admitted into Canada

An imperial order-in-council admitted PEI into Canada, effective 1 July.

July 01, 1873

Prince Edward Island Coat of Arms

Politics and Government 

Prince Edward Island Joins Confederation

Prince Edward Island entered Confederation as Canada's seventh province.

November 05, 1873

Pacific Scandal Political Cartoon

Politics and Government 

Pacific Scandal Forces Resignations

In the Pacific Scandal, the Macdonald government resigned over the evidence that members of the government had accepted campaign funds from Sir Hugh Allan in return for the Canadian Pacific Railway contract.

November 08, 1873

Main Street, Winnipeg

Politics and Government 

Winnipeg Incorporated

Winnipeg was incorporated as a city.

January 22, 1874

Alexander Mackenzie

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win First Majority

In the federal election, the Liberals formed their first majority, winning 133 seats. Alexander Mackenzie became the first Liberal prime minister.

April 16, 1874

Louis Riel

Politics and Government 

Riel Expelled

Louis Riel was expelled from the House of Commons when he attempted to take his seat.

May 26, 1874

Politics and Government 

Secret Ballot Introduced

An Act was passed introducing vote by secret ballot, simultaneous elections and the abolition of property qualifications for Members of Parliament.

September 22, 1874

Politics and Government 

Boucher de Boucherville Becomes Premier

Charles-Eugène Boucher de Boucherville, leader of the provincial Conservative party, became Québec''s third premier.

December 24, 1874

Politics and Government 

Nanaimo Incorporated

Nanaimo, the largest city on Vancouver Island as of 2006, was incorporated as a city.

February 23, 1875

Politics and Government 

Secret Ballot in Québec

A new electoral law was instated in Québec, enforcing the secret ballot for the first time.

April 08, 1875

Politics and Government 

North-West Territories Act

The North-West Territories became a political entity separate from Manitoba. The territory would have its own lieutenant-governor and council.

July 28, 1876

Politics and Government 

Richards Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Albert Norton Richards was sworn in as BC's 2nd lieutenant-governor.

December 15, 1876

Politics and Government 

Letellier de Saint-Just Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Luc Letellier de Saint-Just was appointed Québec''s third lieutenant-governor, serving until 25 July 1879.

January 22, 1878

Politics and Government 

Secret Ballot Employed

The secret ballot and simultaneous voting were employed for the first time in Canada.

March 08, 1878

Politics and Government 

Joly De Lotbinière Becomes Premier

Henri-Gustave Joly De Lotbinière, leader of the provincial Liberal party, became Québec''s fourth premier.

June 25, 1878

Politics and Government 

Walkem Appointed BC's Premier

George Anthony Walkem was sworn in as BC's 5th premier, serving as second term.

July 26, 1879

Politics and Government 

Robitaille Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Théodore Robitaille was appointed Québec''s 4th lieutenant-governor, serving until 6 November 1884.

October 31, 1879

Politics and Government 

Chapleau Becomes Premier

Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau, leader of the provincial Conservative Party, became Québec''s fifth premier.

January 05, 1880

Politics and Government 

First Warden of Surrey, BC

Thomas Shannon was appointed the first warden of Surrey, BC, an office equivalent to mayor today.

March 25, 1880

George Brown

Politics and Government 

George Brown Shot

George Brown was shot at the Globe office by George Bennett, a disgruntled former employee. Brown died on May 9.

September 01, 1880

Claiming the Archipelago, 1909

Politics and Government 

Arctic Sovereignty

British sovereignty over the Arctic Islands passed to Canada.

July 20, 1881

Politics and Government 

Cornwall Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Clement Francis Cornwall was installed as BC's 3rd lieutenant-governor.

June 13, 1882

Politics and Government 

Beaven Appointed BC's Premier

Robert Beaven was sworn in as BC's 6th premier.

July 31, 1882

Politics and Government 

Mousseau Becomes Premier

Joseph-Alfred Mousseau, leader of the provincial Conservative Party, became Québec''s sixth premier.

January 29, 1883

Politics and Government 

Smithe Appointed BC's Premier

William Smithe was sworn in as BC's 7th premier.

March 27, 1883

Regina, Aerial View

Politics and Government 

Capital of the North-West Territories Shifts

The capital of the North-West Territories (the future Alberta and Saskatchewan) shifted from Battleford to Pile O' Bones (Regina). Cree hunters harvested buffalo in the region and stacked the bones of their quarry in piles roughly 2 m tall by 12 m in diameter. The Cree believed that buffalo herds would return to visit these bones, and so named the area Oskana-Ka-asateki, "the place where bones are piled."

September 15, 1884

Politics and Government 

Canada's Nile Voyageurs

The Nile Voyageurs, Canada's first official participants in an overseas war, set sail for Egypt, comprising a force of 386 lumbermen, Caughnawaga Indians and Ottawa boatmen under the command of F.C. Denison.

November 07, 1884

Politics and Government 

Masson Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Louis-François-Rodrigue Masson was appointed Québec''s 5th lieutenant-governor, serving until 24 October 1887.

March 19, 1885

Louis Riel and the Provisional Government

Politics and Government 

Riel's Provisional Government

At Batoche, a provisional government of the North-West was proclaimed, with Louis Riel as president and Gabriel Dumont as adjutant-general.

January 15, 1886

Howe, C.D.

People 

Birth of C.D. Howe

Businessman and politician C.D. Howe was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. Howe’s engineering career took off in Canada, where he founded a Prairie-based construction company that became an international success. During the Depression, he turned his attention to politics. In Parliament, he headed so many portfolios that he was known as the “Minister of Ministers.” Howe initiated many of the nation-building and economic projects that brought Canada fully into the 20th century.

April 06, 1886

Vancouver from the Air

Politics and Government 

Vancouver Incorporated

Vancouver was incorporated as a city.

January 25, 1887

Politics and Government 

Taillon Becomes Québec's 8th Premier

Louis-Olivier Taillon, leader of the provincial Conservative Party, became Québec''s eighth premier.

January 29, 1887

Politics and Government 

Mercier Becomes Premier

Honoré Mercier, leader of the Liberal Party, was sworn in as Québec''s ninth premier.

March 28, 1887

Politics and Government 

Nelson BC's 4th Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Hugh Nelson was installed as BC's 4th lieutenant-governor.

April 01, 1887

Politics and Government 

Davie BC's 8th Premier

Alexander Edmund Davie was sworn in as BC's 8th premier.

June 07, 1887

Politics and Government 

Laurier Chosen Leader

Wilfrid Laurier was chosen leader of the Liberal opposition in Parliament, succeeding Edward Blake.

October 29, 1887

Politics and Government 

Angers Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Auguste-Réal Angers was appointed Québec''s 6th lieutenant-governor, serving until 5 December 1892.

August 02, 1889

Politics and Government 

Robson Appointed BC's Premier

John Robson was sworn in as BC's 9th premier.

December 15, 1891

Politics and Government 

Mercier Dismissed

The premier of Québec, Honoré Mercier, was dismissed from office by the lieutenant-governor because of allegations of conflict of interest; he was acquitted of malfeasance on 4 November 1892.

December 21, 1891

Politics and Government 

Boucher de Boucherville Becomes Premier Again

Charles Eugene Boucher de Boucherville, leader of the Conservative Party, became premier of Québec for the second time.

July 02, 1892

Politics and Government 

Davie Appoiinted BC's Premier

Theodore Davie was sworn in as BC's 10th premier.

November 09, 1892

Politics and Government 

Dewdney Appointed BC Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Edgar Dewdney was sworn in as BC's 5th lieutenant-governor.

December 12, 1892

Politics and Government 

Chapleau Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Joseph-Adolphe Chapleau was appointed Québec''s 7th lieutenant-governor, serving until 29 January 1898.

December 16, 1892

Politics and Government 

Taillon Becomes Premier

Louis-Olivier Taillon, leader of the Conservative Party, became premier of Québec for the second time.

February 20, 1894

Politics and Government 

Manitoba Separate Schools

The Supreme Court refused the appeal of the Manitoba Roman Catholics after the abolition of separate schools.

September 16, 1894

Calgary, 1885

Politics and Government 

Calgary Becomes City

Calgary was incorporated as a city.

March 04, 1895

Politics and Government 

Turner BC's 11th Premier

John Herbert Turner was sworn in as BC's 11th premier.

May 11, 1896

Politics and Government 

Flynn Becomes Premier

Edmund James Flynn, leader of the Conservative Party, became Québec''s 12th premier.

May 24, 1897

Politics and Government 

Marchand Becomes Premier

Félix-Gabriel Marchand, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 13th premier.

June 24, 1897

Frederick W.G. Haultain, lawyer,  politician

Politics and Government 

Cabinet Government in NWT

Full Cabinet government was established in the North-West Territories, and F.W. Haultain formed its first government.

December 01, 1897

Politics and Government 

McInnes Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Thomas Robert McInnes was sworn in as BC's 6th lieutenant-governor.

February 01, 1898

Politics and Government 

Jetté Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Louis-Amable Jetté was appointed Québec''s 8th lieutenant-governor, serving until 15 September 1908.

February 10, 1898

Politics and Government 

BC's Parliament Buildings Open

The first stage of BC's parliament buildings, designed by Francis Rattenbury, opened in Victoria.

June 13, 1898

Yukon Legislature Chamber

Politics and Government 

Yukon Becomes Separate Territory

By Act of Parliament the Yukon became a separate territory with a commissioner and partly elected council.

October 18, 1899

Henri Bourassa, publisher

Politics and Government 

Bourassa Resigns

Henri Bourassa resigned his seat in Parliament to protest Canada's involvement in a British colonial war (the South African War).

November 24, 1899

Politics and Government 

Birth of Dr Masajiro Miyazaki

Dr Masajiro Miyazaki, who, when he was elected village commissioner in Lillooet in 1950, became the first Japanese-Canadian to hold public office in Canada, was born at Hikone City, Japan.

February 28, 1900

Politics and Government 

Martin BC's 13th Premier

Joseph Martin was sworn in as BC's 13th premier.

June 15, 1900

Politics and Government 

Dunsmuir Appinted BC's Premier

James Dunsmuir was sworn in as BC's 14th premier.

June 22, 1900

Politics and Government 

Joly De Lotbinière Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Sir Henry Gustave Joly De Lotbinière was installed as BC's 7th lieutenant-governor.

October 03, 1900

Politics and Government 

Parent Becomes Premier

Simon-Napoléon Parent, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 14th premier.

January 22, 1901

Queen Victoria Statue

Politics and Government 

Death of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria died at Windsor Castle. Edward VII was proclaimed King the next day and was crowned on August 29.

September 16, 1901

Politics and Government 

Duke and Duchess Visit Québec

The Duke and Duchess of York visited Québec City and were welcomed by Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier and Québec Premier Simon-Napoléon Parent.

December 18, 1901

Politics and Government 

Territorial Grain Growers' Assn

William Richard Motherwell founded the Territorial Grain Growers' Association.

May 24, 1902

Queen Victoria Statue

Politics and Government 

First Victoria Day

The first Victoria Day was observed throughout Canada. PM Wilfrid Laurier designated the holiday to fall on the birthday of Queen Victoria.

June 21, 1902

Politics and Government 

Longest BC Legislative Session Closes

The BC legislative session closed after 121 days (a total of 102 sitting days), the longest session since Confederation.

November 21, 1902

Politics and Government 

Prior Sworn in as BC's Premier

Edward Gawler Prior was sworn in as BC's 15th premier.

December 18, 1902

Politics and Government 

Ministerial Conference

Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier arrived at Québec City to attend a ministerial conference. Premier and city mayor Simon Napoléon-Parent was particularly interested in addressing the matter of trans-Canadian railways.

March 01, 1903

Henri Bourassa, publisher

Politics and Government 

Nationalist League

The Nationalist League was founded to spread the nationalist views of its mentor, Henri Bourassa, in opposition to the renewed British imperialism in English Canada.

June 01, 1903

Politics and Government 

McBride Appointed BC's Premier

Conservative party leader Richard McBride was sworn in as BC's 16th premier.

June 19, 1903

Regina, Aerial View

Politics and Government 

Regina Incorporated

Regina, Sask, was incorporated as a city.

October 20, 1903

Alaska Boundary Dispute

Politics and Government 

Alaska Boundary Dispute

Settlement of the Alaska-Canada boundary dispute established the Alaska-Canada border as it is today. The border denied Canada access to the sea in both northern BC and the Yukon.

October 08, 1904

Edmonton, History

Politics and Government 

Edmonton Incorporated

First established in 1795 as a Hudson’s Bay Company post, Edmonton was on this day incorporated as a city. The following year, it was chosen as capital for the freshly minted Province of Alberta. Today, it is the northernmost North American city with a population over one million.

February 27, 1905

Sir Clifford Sifton, politician

Politics and Government 

Sifton Resigns

Interior minister Clifford Sifton resigned from the federal Cabinet in a dispute over guarantees for separate schools in the Act making Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces of Canada.

March 23, 1905

Politics and Government 

Gouin Becomes Premier

Lomer Gouin, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 15th premier.

April 23, 1905

Politics and Government 

Death of Gédéon Ouimet

Gédéon Ouimet, premier of Québec from 1873-1874, died at Saint-Hilaire, Québec.

.

July 18, 1905

Western Settlement

Politics and Government 

Dominion Act

The Dominion Act created the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, effective September 1. Regina and Edmonton, respectively, became the capitals on July 20.

September 01, 1905

Laurier, 1905

Provincial Politics 

Alberta and Saskatchewan Become Provinces

Alberta and Saskatchewan entered Canada as the 8th and 9th provinces by two federal Acts which received royal assent on 20 July. Alberta's boundary with Saskatchewan was set at 110°, though Albertans wanted 107°. The Acts (Autonomy Bills) declared that the West was to have non-denominational schools.

May 26, 1906

Politics and Government 

Dunsmuir Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable James Dunsmuir was installed as BC's 8th lieutenant-governor.

September 07, 1907

Politics and Government 

Anti-Asian Riot

Several hundred people rioted through Vancouver's Asian district to protest Asian immigration to Canada. Discriminatory legislation and social practices in BC denied Chinese, Japanese and South Asians the right to vote, practise law or pharmacy, be elected to public office, serve on juries, or work in education or the civil service. Public opinion resulted on several occasions in violent anti-Asian riots.

January 02, 1908

Nickel Coin

Politics and Government 

Mint Opens

The Royal Canadian Mint opened in Ottawa. Governor General Earl Grey struck the first domestically produced coin in Canada, a 50-cent piece.

September 15, 1908

Politics and Government 

Pelletier Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Charles-Alphonse-Pantaléon Pelletier was appointed Québec''s 9th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 29 April 1911.

August 12, 1909

Politics and Government 

Freight Handlers Strike

Fort William (Thunder Bay), Ont, was placed under martial law as Greek and Italian strikers engaged Canadian Pacific Railway police in a protracted gun battle.

December 11, 1909

Politics and Government 

Paterson Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Thomas Wilson Paterson was sworn in as BC's 9th lieutenant-governor. governor.

January 10, 1910

Henri Bourassa, publisher

Politics and Government 

Le Devoir First Published

The newspaper Le Devoir was first published in Montréal, by Henri Bourassa.

May 26, 1910

Arthur Lewis Sifton, politician

Politics and Government 

A. Sifton Becomes Premier of Alberta

Arthur Sifton became premier of Alberta. He held together a divided party and was an effective premier, a strong leader and a skilled administrator.

May 06, 1911

Politics and Government 

Langelier Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable François Langelier was appointed Québec''s 10th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 8 February 1915.

September 21, 1911

Sir Robert Borden

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Back in Power

In a federal election, the Conservatives under Robert Borden's leadership returned to power, winning 133 seats to the Liberals' 86. Laurier's Liberals had been in power since 1896. The election was a defeat for the Liberals' policy of free trade.

March 15, 1912

Politics and Government 

West Vancouver Incorporated

The district municipality of West Vancouver, with a population of 700, was incorporated.

May 14, 1912

Politics and Government 

Ottawa Transfers Land

The federal government divested itself of responsibility for vast tracks of northern land by granting boundary extensions to Manitoba, Ontario and Québec.

May 15, 1912

Politics and Government 

Québec Border Extended

The Québec border was extended to incorporate the Ungava district.

May 15, 1913

Politics and Government 

Naval Aid Bill

The Conservatives carried the Naval Aid Bill by imposing closure on debate for the first time in Canadian history.

December 17, 1914

Politics and Government 

Barnard Becomes BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Sir Francis Stillman Barnard was sworn in as BC's 10th lieutenant-governor.

February 12, 1915

Politics and Government 

LeBlanc Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Pierre-Évariste LeBlanc was appointed Québec''s 11th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 18 October 1918.

September 16, 1915

Politics and Government 

Liberals Sweep Manitoba

Manitoba Liberals won a landslide election victory after the longtime Conservative government was forced to resign by a scandal over fraud related to the construction of the provincial legislative building.

December 15, 1915

Politics and Government 

Bowser Appointed BC's Premier

Conservative Party leader William John Bowser was sworn in as BC's 17th premier.

February 03, 1916

Parliament on Fire

Politics and Government 

Parliament Buildings Burn

Most of the original Parliament Buildings in Ottawa were destroyed by fire, killing 7 people. Only the Parliamentary Library survived intact.

February 10, 1916

Politics and Government 

Anti-German Riot in Calgary

During the First World War, a rioting mob destroyed several German-owned businesses in Calgary, Alberta. The same day, Calgary City Council decided to fire all employees born in countries at war with Canada.

November 23, 1916

Politics and Government 

Brewster Sworn in as BC's Premier

Liberal party leader Harlan Carey Brewster was sworn in as BC's 18th premier.

May 18, 1917

Borden, Sir Robert Laird

Politics and Government 

Borden Announces Conscription

Sir Robert Borden announced his decision in Parliament to implement Conscription. The imposition of conscription on reluctant French Canadians was a failure and bitterly divided the country along French-English lines.

October 17, 1917

Sir Robert Borden

Politics and Government 

Borden Announces Union

PM Robert Borden announced the formation of a Union government made up of 12 Conservatives, 9 Liberals or independents, and one labour representative.

March 06, 1918

Politics and Government 

Oliver BC's 19th premier

Liberal party leader John Oliver was sworn in as BC's 19th premier.

March 16, 1918

Wilberforce Falls

Politics and Government 

NWT Divided Into Districts

The Northwest Territories were divided into the present Districts of Keewatin, Mackenzie, and Franklin, and brought into the Dominion of Canada; effective 1 January 1920.

March 28, 1918

Politics and Government 

Anti-conscription Riots

Anti-conscription riots began in Québec City.

October 23, 1918

Politics and Government 

Fitzpatrick Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Right Honourable Charles Fitzpatrick was appointed Québec''s 12th lieutenant-governor, serving until 31 October 1923.

February 17, 1919

Sir Wilfrid Laurier Campaigning

Politics and Government 

Death of Laurier

Sir Wilfrid Laurier died at Ottawa.

April 17, 1919

People  Provincial Politics 

Birth of Gilles Lamontagne

Former Québec City mayor and federal Member of Parliament Gilles Lamontagne was born in Montréal. Lamontagne served with the Royal Canadian Air Force during the Second World War and survived two years as a prisoner of war after his plane was shot down over the Netherlands. In addition to his tenure as mayor of Québec City from 1965 to 1977, his distinguished political career included positions as defence minister in Pierre Trudeau’s Liberal government and as lieutenant-governor of Québec. He was named an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1990.

May 22, 1919

Politics and Government 

Nickle Resolution Forbids Honours

The Parliament of Canada passed a resolution preventing Canadian citizens from receiving titles or honours from foreign governments.

June 21, 1919

Winnipeg General Strike, Demonstration

Politics and Government 

Winnipeg Strike Confrontation

A Mounted Police troop charged a demonstration of strikers in Winnipeg. Two strikers were killed and 20 were wounded.

December 18, 1919

Politics and Government 

Prior Becomes BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Edward Gawler Prior was sworn in as BC's 11th lieutenant-governor.

January 10, 1920

League of Nations Meeting

Politics and Government 

Canada Joins League of Nations

Canada became a founding member of the League of Nations.

July 09, 1920

Politics and Government 

Taschereau Becomes Premier

Louis-Alexandre Taschereau, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 16th premier.

December 25, 1920

Politics and Government 

Nichol installed as BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Walter Cameron Nichol was installed as BC's 12th lieutenant-governor.

July 18, 1921

Politics and Government 

Parlby Elected

Irene Parlby was elected to the Alberta Legislature, representing Lacombe in the United Farmers of Alberta government. She was subsequently named to Cabinet, as minister without portfolio. Parlby was only the second woman in the British Empire to hold ministerial office. She was particularly active on issues related to public health care, improved wages for working women and married women's property rights.

November 21, 1921

Canada's Coat of Arms

Politics and Government 

Royal Arms of Canada

Red and white were designated Canada’s colours by King George V in the proclamation of the Royal Arms of Canada, Canada’s Coat of Arms.A red maple leaf appears in the right paw of a lion and three maple leaves joined by one stem appear in the crest.

December 06, 1921

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Minority

In a federal election, the Liberals won a minority government with 116 seats. The Conservatives took 50, the Progressives 65 (there were 4 other members). Mackenzie King became prime minister.

January 21, 1922

Politics and Government 

Birth of Lincoln Alexander

Lincoln Alexander, CC, OOnt, lawyer, parliamentarian, public servant, lieutenant-governor of Ontario, was born in Toronto, ON. The first Black Canadian to sit in the House of Commons (1968) and to hold a viceregal position (1985).

September 15, 1922

Politics and Government 

Chanak Affair

Britain sent a telegram calling upon the Dominions to contribute soldiers in a demonstration of the Empire's solidarity against the Turks. PM King was noncommittal.

July 01, 1923

Chinese Labourers

Politics and Government 

Chinese Immigration Act

The Chinese Immigration Act was replaced by legislation that virtually suspended Chinese immigration on the day known to the Canadian Chinese as "Humiliation Day." The discriminatory legislation would not be repealed until 1947.

October 31, 1923

Politics and Government 

Brodeur Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Louis-Philippe Brodeur was appointed Québec''s 13th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 2 January 1924.

January 10, 1924

Politics and Government 

Pérodeau Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Narcisse Pérodeau was appointed Québec''s 14th lieutenant-governor, serving until 10 January 1929.

January 26, 1924

Canadian Red Ensign (1957-1965)

Politics and Government 

Red Ensign Approved

The Canadian Red Ensign was approved as the official flag for government buildings at home and abroad.

June 11, 1925

Standing the Gaff

Politics and Government 

Cape Breton Strike

Coal miner William Davis was killed by police in the culmination of a long Cape Breton strike.

November 23, 1925

Politics and Government 

Premier Greenfield Resigns

Premier Herbert Greenfield, ill and often absent, resigned as premier of Alberta. He was succeeded by John Brownlee.

February 05, 1926

Politics and Government 

BC 's Confederation Experience

BC premier John Oliver told the Canadian Club in Vancouver that while "the principle of Confederation was right," BC's experience had not "been fully satisfactory."

February 24, 1926

Politics and Government 

Bruce Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Robert Randolph Bruce was appointed as BC's 13th lieutenant-governor.

June 03, 1926

People 

Birth of Flora MacDonald

Politician Flora MacDonald, who was secretary of state for External Affairs in the government of Joe Clark (1979–80) and the first woman to hold such an important federal Cabinet post, was born in North Sydney, NS.

September 14, 1926

King, William Lyon Mackenzie

Politics and Government 

King Forms Minority

In a federal election the Liberals and Conservatives reversed fortunes with the Liberals winning 116 seats and the Conservatives 91. The Progressives won 13 seats and the UFA 11; there were 14 others. King became prime minister again, forming a minority.

November 18, 1926

Politics and Government 

Balfour Report

The Balfour Report was adopted at the Imperial Conference, which met in London from October 19 to November 23. This was a resolution defining Britain and the self-governing Dominions as "autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal in status."

March 01, 1927

Labrador Highlands

Politics and Government 

Labrador Boundary Set

The Labrador boundary was settled in its present location by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

August 20, 1927

Politics and Government 

MacLean Sworn in as BC's Premier

Liberal leader John Duncan MacLean was sworn in as BC's 20th premier.

April 02, 1928

Camillien Houde

Politics and Government 

Houde Elected Mayor

Camillien Houde was first elected mayor of Montréal. Until his retirement on 18 September 1954, he so incarnated his city that he was called "Mr Montréal."

July 18, 1928

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win BC Election

After 12 years of Liberal rule in BC, the Conservatives under Simon Tolmie took 35 of the province's 48 seats. Tolmie remained premier until November 1933.

August 21, 1928

Politics and Government 

Tolmie Premier of BC

The Conservatives won the BC provincial election, with Simon Fraser Tolmie becoming the 21st premier.

January 10, 1929

Politics and Government 

Gouin Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Lomer Gouin was appointed Québec''s 15th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 28 March 1929.

March 22, 1929

Politics and Government 

I'm Alone Sunk

The Canadian schooner and rumrunner I'm Alone was sunk by the US Coast Guard. The captain and crew were taken to New Orleans as prisoners.

April 04, 1929

Politics and Government 

Carroll Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Henry George Carroll was appointed Québec''s 16th lieutenant-governor, serving until 3 May 1934.

February 20, 1930

Forest, Old Growth

Politics and Government 

Natural Resource Transfer to BC

The federal government transferred control of natural resources in the province to BC.

July 28, 1930

Richard Bedford Bennett, politician

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Election

In a federal election, the Conservatives won a majority with 137 seats to the Liberals' 91. The UFA held 10 and the Progressives dropped to 2. R.B. Bennett became prime minister.

August 09, 1930

Jacques Parizeau, politician

Politics and Government 

Birth of Jacques Parizeau

Jacques Parizeau, who nearly led Québec to sovereignty in the 1995 referendum as premier and head of the Parti Québécois, was born in Montréal. An economist by training, Parizeau was a key figure in the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, helping to establish public institutions such as the Québec Pension Plan and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.

November 12, 1930

Politics and Government 

Norway Recognizes Sovereignty

Norway formally recognized the sovereignty of Canada over the Sverdrup Islands in the Arctic.

August 01, 1931

Politics and Government 

Johnson Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable John William Fordham Johnson was sworn in as BC's 14th lieutenant-governor.

June 24, 1932

Mel Hurtig

People 

Birth of Mel Hurtig

Publisher and nationalist Mel Hurtig, who first published The Canadian Encyclopedia (1985 and 1988), was born in Edmonton, Alberta. Hurtig also co-founded the Council of Canadians and wrote a number of books on Canadian society and politics.

November 02, 1933

Pattulo, Thomas Dufferin

Politics and Government 

Liberal Victory in BC

Thomas Dufferin Pattullo led the Liberal Party to victory in a BC election.

November 15, 1933

Politics and Government 

Pattullo Appointed BC's Premier

Liberal party leader Thomas Dufferin Pattullo was sworn in as BC's 22nd premier.

December 02, 1933

Politics and Government 

Newfoundland Reverts to Crown

Newfoundland lost its Dominion status due to its financial situation; its constitution was suspended and it reverted to a Crown colony.

February 16, 1934

Gros Morne

Politics and Government 

Newfoundland Commission Government

Newfoundland began its government by a Commission appointed by Britain.

May 03, 1934

Politics and Government 

Patenaude Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Ésioff-Léon Patenaude was appointed Québec''s 17th lieutenant-governor, serving until 30 December 1939.

June 19, 1934

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win in Saskatchewan

The Liberals under James Garfield Gardiner won the Saskatchewan elections.

October 26, 1934

Politics and Government 

Reconstruction Party Formed

H.H. Stevens formed the business-oriented Reconstruction Party.

November 21, 1934

Provincial Politics 

Birth of Howard Pawley

Howard Pawley, NDP premier of Manitoba from 1981 to 1988, was born in Brampton, Ontario.

January 02, 1935

Richard Bedford Bennett, politician

Politics and Government 

Bennett Outlines New Deal

With Canadians suffering from coast to coast, Conservative prime minister R.B. Bennett made the first of five radio broadcasts to address the state of the nation, which was deep in the Great Depression. Called The Premier Speaks to the People, Bennett’s address was broadcast across 38 stations. The legislation he proposed became known as Canada’s “New Deal.” It was reported that Bennett paid for the airtime, approximately $10,000, out of his own pocket.

June 05, 1935

On to Ottawa Trek

Politics and Government 

On to Ottawa Trek

About 1000 unemployed men boarded freight cars in Vancouver to begin the "On to Ottawa" trek. The strikers commandeered freight trains and made stops in Calgary, Medicine Hat, Swift Current and Moose Jaw before arriving in Regina June 14.

October 14, 1935

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Election

In the federal election, the Liberals won a landslide majority, with 171 seats to the Conservatives' 39. The CCF won 7 seats and the Social Credit 17. King became prime minister for the third time.

May 01, 1936

Politics and Government 

Hamber Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Eric Werge Hamber was installed as BC's 15th lieutenant-governor.

June 11, 1936

Politics and Government 

Godbout Becomes Premier

Joseph-Adélard Godbout, leader of the Liberal Party, became Québec''s 17th premier.

August 17, 1936

Politics and Government 

Union Nationale Victory

The Union Nationale, led by Maurice Duplessis, won the Québec election. Duplessis was sworn in on 26 Aug.

December 09, 1936

Politics and Government 

Edward VIII Abdicates

Canada was informed of Edward VIII's intention to abdicate, which he did the next day; the new king was George VI.

August 15, 1937

Politics and Government 

Dominion-Provincial Relations

PM Mackenzie King appointed the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations to examine the amendment of the BNA Act, and the relationship of the federal and provincial governments in Confederation.

May 20, 1938

Politics and Government 

Relief Workers' Strike in BC

Unemployed members of the Relief Project Worker's Union in Vancouver occupied the Hotel Georgia, the Vancouver Art Gallery and the central post office and began a sit-down strike.

August 12, 1938

Provincial Politics 

Birth of Jean-Paul L'Allier

Jean-Paul L'Allier, who served as a Québec's minister of Communications during the October Crisis and later as mayor of Québec City from 1989 to 2005, was born in Hudson, Québec.

May 17, 1939

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth

Politics and Government 

First Royal Visit

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth arrived in Canada for a state visit, the first reigning monarchs to visit Canada or any Commonwealth country. On May 19, George VI gave royal assent to several Canadian Bills in the Senate Chamber.

September 03, 1939

Politics and Government 

Wartime Prices and Trade Board

The Wartime Prices and Trade Board was established to control inflation and to ensure that social unrest did not interfere with the upcoming war effort.

October 25, 1939

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Québec Election

The Liberals won the Québec provincial elections. Joseph-Adélard Godbout was sworn in as premier on 8 Nov.

December 30, 1939

Politics and Government 

Fiset Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Major General the Honourable Eugène Fiset was appointed Québec''s 18th lieutenant-governor, serving until 3 October 1950.

January 01, 1940

Politics and Government 

Municipal Government in NWT

The first municipal government in the Northwest Territories was inaugurated in Yellowknife.

March 21, 1940

Aberhart, William

Politics and Government 

Social Credit Retain Power

Premier William Aberhart's Social Credit Party won 36 of 57 seats in Alberta's provincial election.

March 26, 1940

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Federal Election

In the federal election, the Liberals retained power with 178 seats. The Conservatives stayed at 39, the CCF won 8 and the Social Credit 10. King remained prime minister.

April 03, 1940

Politics and Government 

Earl of Athlone Appointed

The Earl of Athlone was the second member of the British royal family to be appointed governor general of Canada.

June 05, 1940

Communist Party of Canada

Politics and Government 

Communists Declared Illegal

Nazi, Fascist and Communist groups were declared illegal in Canada, and their leaders were jailed.

August 17, 1940

W.L.M. King and F.D. Roosevelt

Politics and Government 

Ogdensburg Agreement

PM Mackenzie King and President Roosevelt held a conference on the defence of North America at Ogdensburg, NY. The Odgensburg Agreement was signed, and the Permanent Joint Board of Defence was created on August 18.

August 14, 1941

Politics and Government 

Atlantic Charter

At Placentia Bay, Nfld, British prime minister Winston Churchill and American president F.D. Roosevelt signed the Atlantic Charter.

September 05, 1941

Politics and Government 

Woodward Installed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable William Culham Woodward was installed as BC's 16th lieutenant-governor.

December 09, 1941

Politics and Government 

Hart Becomes Premier

Liberal leader John Hart was sworn in as BC's 23rd premier, heading the province's first coalition government.

January 01, 1942

United Nations Headquarters

Politics and Government 

United Nations Term Used

The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

February 26, 1942

Japanese Evacuation, 1942.  Image: Erindale College Photo Collection.

Politics and Government 

Japanese Relocation

Following the Japanese strike on Pearl Harbour, the federal government interns 22,000 Japanese men, women and children in British Columbia for the remainder of the war. The government apologizes for Japanese internment in 1988. Similar actions had taken place in 1914, with the internment of nationals from Germany, and the Austro-Hungarian and Turkish Empires.

January 08, 1943

Politics and Government 

Garson Succeeds Bracken

Stuart Sinclair Garson became premier of Manitoba, succeeding John Bracken.

May 23, 1943

Aberhart, William

Politics and Government 

Death of Aberhart

Longtime Social Credit premier of Alberta William Aberhart died in Vancouver. He was succeeded by Ernest Manning.

May 31, 1943

Manning, Ernest

Politics and Government 

Manning Becomes Premier

Ernest Charles Manning succeeded William Aberhart as Social Credit premier of Alberta.

August 04, 1943

George Drew, politician

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Ontario

George Drew's Progressive Conservative Party won the Ontario election, beginning a political dynasty that would last 42 years.

August 17, 1943

W.L.M. King and F.D. Roosevelt

Politics and Government 

Québec War Conference

Churchill and Roosevelt held the 6th Anglo-American War Conference, hosted by Mackenzie King (first Québec Conference) in Québec City.

October 14, 1943

Politics and Government 

Canada Medal Approved

The Canada Medal was approved by King George VI and the Canadian Cabinet. It was the first distinctly Canadian decoration, although it was never awarded.

June 15, 1944

Douglas, Tommy

Politics and Government 

CCF Triumphs in Saskatchewan

The CCF won the Saskatchewan provincial election, with Thomas C. Douglas as premier. It was the first socialist government in North America.

August 30, 1944

Politics and Government 

Duplessis Becomes Premier Again

Maurice Le Noblet Duplessis, leader of the Union Nationale, became premier of Québec for the second time.

September 11, 1944

Québec Conference, 1943

Politics and Government 

2nd Québec War Conference

The 2nd Québec Conference of Allied leaders Winston Churchill and F.D. Roosevelt was held at the Château Frontenac in Québec City, hosted by Mackenzie King.

March 05, 1945

United Nations Headquarters

Politics and Government 

Canada Attends UN Conference

Canada was invited to attend the United Nations Conference in San Francisco.

May 07, 1945

Politics and Government 

VE-Day Riots

Victory in Europe Day (VE-Day) riots broke out in Halifax. About 10 000 servicemen looted and vandalized the city's downtown.

June 11, 1945

King, William Lyon Mackenzie

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Reduced Majority

In the federal election, the Liberals won with a reduced majority of 125 seats to the Conservatives' 67. The CCF rose to 28 seats. King remained prime minister.

June 26, 1945

United Nations Headquarters

Politics and Government 

Canada Joins United Nations

Canada joined the United Nations at its founding.

September 05, 1945

Igor Gouzenko

Politics and Government 

Gouzenko Defects

Soviet cipher clerk Igor Gouzenko defected from the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa with secret documents suggesting the evidence of a Soviet spy ring in Canada.

January 10, 1946

United Nations Headquarters

Politics and Government 

First UN General Assembly

The first General Assembly of the United Nations was held in London.

October 01, 1946

Politics and Government 

Banks Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Charles Arthur Banks was sworn in as BC's 17th lieutenant-governor.

October 14, 1946

Politics and Government 

Savings Bonds Introduced

The federal government introduced the first Canada Savings Bonds.

January 01, 1947

Politics and Government 

Chinese and South Asian Canadians Gain Right to Vote Federally and Provincially

The Citizenship Act extended the right to vote federally and provincially to Chinese Canadian and South Asian Canadian men and women, but ignored Indigenous peoples and Japanese Canadians.

July 23, 1947

Politics and Government 

First Female Political Candidate (Qué)

Mae O'Connor, widow of Liberal Member Dennis O'Connor, unsuccessfully ran as the first female candidate in a Québec election.

August 11, 1947

Politics and Government 

Death of Gerry Grattan McGeer

Gerald "Gerry" Grattan McGeer, perhaps Vancouver's most flamboyant mayor, died in office.

December 29, 1947

Politics and Government 

Johnnson Appointed BC's Premier

Liberal leader Byron Ingemar Johnnson was sworn in as BC's 24th premier, heading a coalition government.

January 21, 1948

Flag of Québec (Fleurdelisé)

Politics and Government 

Flag of Québec (the Fleurdelisé)

Québec’s flag, the Fleurdelisé, was flown for the first time at centre tower of the Québec Parliament Building in Québec City. The Québec government adopted the Fleurdelisé during the administration of Maurice Duplessis. It was the first provincial flag officially adopted in Canada. Maurice Duplessis proclaimed the fleur de lis as the official emblem of Québec. After more than 50 years, the controversy continues as botanists insist that the flowers on the flag are not lilies but irises, which are indigenous to Québec.

April 08, 1948

Politics and Government 

BC's Sales Tax Introduced

BC's first sales tax was introduced. The 3% tax was intended to pay for increased social programs.

June 03, 1948

Politics and Government 

Newfoundland Votes vs Canada

A Newfoundland referendum resulted in 69,000 votes for self-government, 64,000 for union with Canada, and 22,000 for no change in the island's status. Another vote on 22 July showed a majority of 7,000 for union with Canada.

September 08, 1948

Politics and Government 

Office of Governor General

King George V issued letters patent authorizing the governor general of Canada to exercise all powers and authorities lawfully belonging to the King as they apply to Canada.

March 03, 1949

Politics and Government 

Birth of Elijah Harper

Cree politician, consultant, policy analyst Elijah Harper was born in Red Sucker Lake, MB. The first Aboriginal member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, Harper also served as the minister of Northern Affairs. From 1993 to 1997, he represented the riding of Churchill in the federal Parliament. Harper is best known for the role he played in scuttling the Meech Lake Accord, where he cited the lack of adequate participation and recognition of Aboriginal people in that process.

April 01, 1949

Joey Smallwood

Politics and Government 

Smallwood Appointed Premier

Joseph Roberts Smallwood was appointed the first premier of Newfoundland in Confederation.

April 01, 1949

Politics and Government 

Wartime Restrictions on Japanese-Canadians Lifted

The lifting of the last wartime restrictions on Japanese-Canadians came into effect, allowing them to move anywhere in Canada.

May 04, 1949

Frost, Leslie

Politics and Government 

Frost Becomes Premier

Leslie Frost signing the oath of premier, Queen's Park, Ontario, May 4, 1949 (Ontario Archives, 478).

June 27, 1949

Louis St-Laurent, politician

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Landslide

In the federal election, the Liberals won a landslide with 190 seats (the highest by any party to that time) to only 41 seats for the Progressive Conservatives under George Drew. The CCF won 13 and the Social Credit 10. Louis St-Laurent remained PM.

December 12, 1949

People 

First Woman Speaker

Nancy Hodges was named Speaker of the BC Legislature, the first woman to hold the post of Speaker in the British Commonwealth.

October 02, 1950

Politics and Government 

Wallace Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Clarence Wallace was sworn in as BC's 18th lieutenant-governor.

October 03, 1950

Politics and Government 

Fauteux Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Gaspard Fauteux was appointed Québec''s 19th lieutenant-governor, serving until 14 February 1958.

November 28, 1950

Politics and Government 

Canada Joins Colombo Plan

Canada announced its intention of joining with other Commonwealth nations in what became the Colombo Plan to attack the poverty upon which communist political movements in Asia were thought to feed.

January 01, 1952

Politics and Government 

Old-Age Security Act

A new Old-Age Security Act came into effect, providing universal pensions to those 70 and over.

August 01, 1952

Politics and Government 

Bennett Appointed BC's Premier

Social Credit party leader William Andrew Bennett was sworn in as BC's 25th premier.

October 14, 1952

Pearson, Lester B.

Politics and Government 

Pearson President of UN

Lester Pearson was elected president at the opening of the 7th session of the UN General Assembly in New York.

January 07, 1955

Politics and Government 

Parliament Televised

The opening of Parliament in Ottawa was televised for the first time.

October 03, 1955

Politics and Government 

Ross Appointed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Frank MacKenzie Ross was sworn in as BC's 19th lieutenant-governor.

October 30, 1956

Stanfield, Robert

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Nova Scotia

The Conservatives under Robert Lorne Stanfield won the Nova Scotia election.

November 24, 1956

Politics and Government 

First Peacekeeping Troops

The first 20 Canadian peacekeeping troops arrived in Egypt.

December 14, 1956

Politics and Government 

Diefenbaker Becomes Leader

John George Diefenbaker was elected leader of the Progressive Conservative Party.

June 10, 1957

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Minority

In a federal election, the Progressive Conservatives won a minority government, with 112 seats. The Liberals retained 105, the CCF 25 and the Social Credit 19. John G. Diefenbaker became the first prime minister from western Canada on June 21.

June 10, 1957

Politics and Government 

First Chinese Canadian Elected to Federal Office

Douglas Jung was elected Conservative MP for a Vancouver riding, becoming the first Chinese Canadian to hold elected federal office.

October 12, 1957

Pearson, Lester B.

Politics and Government 

Pearson Receives Nobel Prize

Lester Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his solution to the Suez Crisis.

October 14, 1957

Politics and Government 

Elizabeth II Opens Parliament

Queen Elizabeth II opened Parliament, the first time a reigning monarch opened Parliament in Canada.

January 16, 1958

Pearson, Lester B.

Politics and Government 

Pearson Wins Leadership

Lester B. Pearson was elected leader of the Liberal Party at an Ottawa convention.

February 14, 1958

Politics and Government 

Gagnon Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Onésime Gagnon was appointed Québec''s 20th lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 30 September 1961.

March 31, 1958

Diefenbaker, John

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Majority

In a federal election, the Progressive Conservatives won a resounding majority, with 208 seats (the highest to that time). The Liberals dropped to only 49 seats and the CCF to 8. Diefenbaker remained prime minister.

September 07, 1959

Maurice Duplessis, politician

Politics and Government 

Death of Duplessis

Maurice Duplessis, who had been premier of Quebec for a total of 18 years, died after a series of strokes.

September 11, 1959

Paul Sauvé

Politics and Government 

Sauvé Becomes Premier

Joseph-Mignault-Paul Sauvé, leader of the Union Nationale, became Québec''s 21st premier.

January 02, 1960

Politics and Government 

Death of Paul Sauvé

Paul Sauvé, Québec's 17th premier and leader of the Union Nationale, died in office.

January 08, 1960

Politics and Government 

Barrette Becomes Premier

Antonio Barrette, leader of the Union Nationale, became Québec''s 22nd premier.

June 22, 1960

Jean Lesage

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Québec

The Liberals under Jean Lesage won the Québec provincial election, finally breaking the hold of the Union Nationale, and signalling a time for change and reform that has become known as the Quiet Revolution. Lesage was sworn in as premier on 5 Jul.

July 25, 1960

Politics and Government 

First Ministers Meet

A federal-provincial premiers' conference met to discuss constitutional amendments and tax issues.

September 10, 1960

Politics and Government 

Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale Founded

The Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale, a left-wing independence movement in Québec, was founded.

October 13, 1960

Politics and Government 

Pearkes Installed BC's Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable George Randolph Pearkes was installed as BC's 20th lieutenant-governor.

June 13, 1961

Ottawa from the Air

Politics and Government 

Green Belt Explored

The National Capital Commission completed its explorations for the 16 590 ha green belt surrounding Ottawa.

August 03, 1961

Douglas, Tommy

Politics and Government 

Tommy Douglas Leader of the NDP

Saskatchewan's Premier Tommy Douglas was elected national leader of the newly formed New Democratic Party.

August 14, 1961

Politics and Government 

Premiers Meet

The second conference of provincial premiers was held at Charlottetown, PEI.

October 11, 1961

Politics and Government 

Comtois Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Paul Comtois was appointed Québec''s 21st lieutenant-governor, serving until his death on 21 February 1966.

November 08, 1961

Confederation of Tomorrow

Politics and Government 

Robarts Becomes Premier

John Parmenter Robarts succeeded Leslie Frost as premier of Ontario.

June 18, 1962

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Minority

In a federal election, the Conservatives were reduced to a minority government, dropping to 116 seats. The Liberals won 99, Social Credit 30 and the NDP 19 seats. Diefenbaker remained prime minister with the support of the Social Credit.

August 06, 1962

Politics and Government 

Premiers Meet in Victoria

The third conference of provincial premiers was held in Victoria.

February 04, 1963

Bomarc Missile

Politics and Government 

Bomarc Missile Crisis

Defence Minister Douglas Scott Harkness resigned over the government's refusal to accept US nuclear warheads for Canadian Bomarc missiles. The Diefenbaker government later fell over the issue.

February 05, 1963

Diefenbaker, John

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Fall Over Nuclear Policy

Diefenbaker's government was defeated in the House of Commons in a nonconfidence motion over nuclear weapons policy, making a federal general election necessary. It was only the second such defeat since Confederation.

April 08, 1963

John Diefenbaker

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win a Minority

In a federal election, the Liberals regained power, but after a vigorous campaign by Diefenbaker their 129 seats were only good for a minority government. The Conservatives held 95 seats, Social Credit 24 seats and the NDP 17. Lester Pearson became PM.

April 20, 1963

Politics and Government 

FLQ Bombing

Wilfred O'Neill was killed by a bomb blast at a Montréal army recruiting centre. The bomb was the work of the terrorist group Front de libération du Québec (FLQ).

July 10, 1963

Politics and Government 

Voting Age (Qué)

Québec lowers the voting age from 21 to 18.

October 07, 1963

Politics and Government 

FLQ Terrorists Guilty

Sixteen FLQ members pleaded guilty to terrorist activities.

March 13, 1964

Canadian Soldier in Cyprus

Politics and Government 

Cyprus Peacekeeping

The government approved a Canadian contribution to a United Nations international peacekeeping force in Cyprus.

March 31, 1964

Politics and Government 

Federal-provincial Conference

A federal-provincial conference was held in Québec City.

April 22, 1964

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win in Saskatchewan

The Liberals under W. Ross Thatcher won the Saskatchewan provincial election, displacing the CCF-NDP after 20 years.

June 09, 1964

Aitken, William Maxwell

Politics and Government 

Death of Max Aitken

William Maxwell Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook, Canadian-born politician and newspaper proprietor, died in England.

July 06, 1964

Politics and Government 

Parti libéral du Québec Created

The Fédération Libérale du Québec split from the Liberal Party of Canada, forming its own national party, the Parti libéral du Québec.

October 10, 1964

Politics and Government 

Queen Visits Québec

Queen Elizabeth II visited Québec. She was met with hostility by Québec separatists who saw her as the symbol of past colonial oppression, and the day is remembered as “Samedi de la matraque” or Truncheon Saturday.

February 15, 1965

First raising of the new Canadian Flag, Centre Block, Parliament Buildings

Politics and Government 

Flag of Canada Raised

The Flag of Canada was raised for the first time on Parliament Hill, Ottawa.

February 25, 1965

Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism

Politics and Government 

Preliminary B&B Report

The preliminary report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was tabled in the House of Commons.

February 27, 1965

Politics and Government 

Québec Signs Agreement with France

The first international agreement of Québec was signed with France, beginning periodic clashes with the federal government over the role and presence of Québec in international affairs.

March 02, 1965

Politics and Government 

Lucien Rivard Escapes

Suspected drug smuggler Lucien Rivard escaped from Montréal's Bordeaux Jail. Charges of bribery connected with the escape created a scandal for the Liberal government.

March 20, 1965

Lougheed, Peter

Politics and Government 

Peter Lougheed Elected Leader

Calgary lawyer Peter Lougheed, 36, was elected leader of the Alberta Progressive Conservative Party. He was first elected to the legislature in 1967.

August 06, 1965

Laval

Politics and Government 

City of Laval Charter

The 14 municipalities of Île Jésus merged, creating the new city boundaries of Laval and making it the second largest city in Québec.

November 08, 1965

Politics and Government 

MacInnis Elected to BC Parliament

Grace MacInnis won election to Parliament for the NDP, becoming BC's first woman Member of Parliament.

February 22, 1966

Politics and Government 

LaPointe Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Hugues LaPointe was appointed Québec''s 22nd lieutenant-governor, serving until 27 April 1978.

March 04, 1966

Gerda Munsinger, actor

Politics and Government 

Munsinger Affair

The Munsinger Affair became known to Parliament and the country when Lucien Cardin raised Gerda Munsinger's name in Parliament.

June 05, 1966

Johnson, Daniel

Politics and Government 

UN Win Québec

The Union Nationale under Daniel Johnson won the Québec provincial election.

June 16, 1966

Johnson, Daniel

Politics and Government 

Johnson Becomes Premier

Daniel Johnson Sr, leader of the Union Nationale, became Québec''s 24th premier.

October 28, 1966

Politics and Government 

Federal-Provincial Meeting

A federal-provincial premiers' conference on fiscal matters was held in Ottawa.

December 31, 1966

Politics and Government 

Centennial Flame Lit

Canada's centennial celebration was launched with a ceremony in Ottawa, during which PM Pearson lit the Centennial Flame at the entrance to Parliament Hill.

April 06, 1967

Politics and Government 

Canada's First Ombudsman

George McClellan was named ombudsman of Alberta, Canada's first.

April 12, 1967

Calixa Lavallée

Politics and Government 

Commons Approves O Canada

The House of Commons approved O Canada as the national anthem.

April 17, 1967

Order of Canada

Politics and Government 

Order of Canada Created

PM Pearson announced the creation of the Order of Canada, effective July 1.

January 17, 1970

Bourassa, Robert

Politics and Government 

Bourassa Elected Leader

Robert Bourassa was elected leader of Québec Liberal Party and succeeded Jean Lesage as premier.

April 29, 1970

Bourassa, Robert

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Québec

The Liberal Party led by Robert Bourassa won the Québec provincial election.

April 29, 1970

Bourassa, Robert

Politics and Government 

Québec Liberals Defeat Union Nationale

Robert Bourassa's Liberals defeated the governing Union Nationale in the Québec provincial election.

June 23, 1971

Bourassa, Robert

Politics and Government 

Bourassa Rejects Charter

Québec premier Robert Bourassa rejected the Victoria Charter.

August 30, 1971

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Alberta

Peter Lougheed's Conservatives ended 36 years of Socred government in Alberta by winning a majority government in a general election.

October 30, 1972

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Minority

In a federal election, the Liberals lost their majority, winning only 109 seats to the Tories' 107, but Trudeau remained prime minister at the head of a minority government with the support of the NDP (31 seats). The Social Credit won 15 seats.

October 29, 1973

Politics and Government 

Québec Liberals Win

Robert Bourassa's Parti libéral was re-elected with 30% of the vote.

January 17, 1974

People 

First Woman Lieutenant-Governor

Pauline McGibbon was appointed lieutenant-governor of Ontario, the first woman to hold the position of lieutenant-governor in Canada.

July 02, 1974

Politics and Government 

Ralph Steinhauer Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

Ralph Steinhauer was appointed lieutenant-governor of Alberta, the first Native to hold vice-regal office in Canada.

December 22, 1975

Politics and Government 

Bennett Appointed BC's Premier

Social Credit party leader William Richards Bennett was sworn in as BC's 27th premier.

April 27, 1978

Politics and Government 

Côté Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Jean-Pierre Côté was appointed Québec''s 23rd lieutenant-governor, serving until 28 March 1984.

April 26, 1982

Devine, Grant

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Saskatchewan

Grant Devine's PC's won the general election in Saskatchewan.

March 28, 1984

Politics and Government  Provincial Politics 

Lamontagne Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Gilles Lamontagne was appointed Québec''s 24th lieutenant-governor, serving until 9 August 1990.

September 04, 1984

Brian Mulroney

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Huge Majority

In a federal election, the Conservatives won 211 seats, eclipsing Diefenbaker's record 208. The Liberals under John Turner retained only 40, the NDP 30. Brian Mulroney became prime minister.

December 15, 1984

Politics and Government 

Bill 101 Challenged

The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the compulsory exclusive use of French on public commercial signs, as per Bill 101, was contrary to the right of freedom of speech. The Bourassa government reacted by introducing Bill 178, reinstating the use of French-only signs.

September 20, 1985

Alexander, Lincoln M.

Politics and Government 

Lincoln Alexander Sworn In

Lincoln Alexander was sworn in as Ontario's lieutenant-governor, the first Black person to hold the vice-regal position in Canada. Alexander was also the first Black MP and federal Cabinet minister.

October 03, 1985

Politics and Government 

Johnson Becomes Premier

Pierre Marc Johnson, leader of the Parti Québécois, became Quebec's 28th premier.

December 02, 1985

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Québec

Robert Bourassa led the Liberals to a sweeping victory over the Parti Québécois but failed to win his own seat until January 20, 1986.

September 30, 1986

Politics and Government 

First Speaker Chosen by Ballot

The members of the House of Commons selected a new speaker by secret ballot for the first time.

March 19, 1988

Jacques Parizeau, politician

Politics and Government 

Parizeau New PQ Leader

Jacques Parizeau became leader of the Parti Québécois. He told party members that their primary goal must be independence for Québec.

December 21, 1988

Bourassa, Robert

Politics and Government 

Bill 178

Bourassa's government adopted Bill 178, an Act to countermand Bill 101. The new Bill reinforced that "public signs and posters and commercial advertising, outside or intended for the public outside, shall be solely in French."

August 09, 1990

Politics and Government 

Asselin Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Martial Asselin was appointed Québec''s 25th lieutenant-governor, serving until 12 September 1996.

June 20, 1991

Bourassa, Robert

Politics and Government 

Bill 150 Passed

Robert Bourassa's government passes Bill 150, also known as an Act respecting the process for determining the political and constitutional future of Québec.

April 09, 1992

Politics and Government 

Britain's Conservatives Win

In Great Britain, the Conservatives won a fourth successive term with a reduced majority.

October 25, 1993

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Federal Election

In a federal election, the Liberals won 178 seats and a majority. The Conservatives' 154 seats were reduced to 2, while the NDP retained only 9. Reform won 52 seats and the Bloc Québécois became the official opposition with 54.

September 12, 1994

Jacques Parizeau, politician

Politics and Government 

PQ Victory in Québec

The Parti Québécois won an overall majority in the Québec legislature. Jacques Parizeau was sworn in as premier on 26 September.

February 13, 1995

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win By-elections

The Liberals won 2 federal by-elections in Québec.

October 30, 1995

Politics and Government 

Second Sovereignty Referendum

Québec held its second sovereignty referendum in 15 years. The “"no"” side won, with a 50.6 per cent majority, in a vote that saw 93.2 per cent of the population participating. In a public speech a shocked Premier Jacques Parizeau blamed the result on money and ethnic voters, and resigned the next day.

March 25, 1996

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win By-elections

The federal Liberal Party won 5 by-elections and the Bloc Québécois 1, restoring the Liberals to 177 seats and confirming the BQ as the official opposition.

October 02, 1996

Bourassa, Robert

Politics and Government 

Death of Robert Bourassa

Former Québec premier Robert Bourassa died in Montréal of skin cancer.

November 18, 1996

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win PEI

The Conservative Party was elected in PEI. Patrick Binns, a former bean farmer, became premier.

January 30, 1997

Politics and Government 

Thibault Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Lise Thibault was appointed Québec''s 27th lieutenant-governor, serving until 7 June 2007.

June 07, 1999

Bernard Lord

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win in NB

The New Brunswick Progressive Conservative Party won a surprising landslide victory in the provincial election. Thirty-three-year-old Bernard Lord became premier.

November 27, 2000

Jean Chrétien, politcian

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win Third Straight

The Liberal Party won its third straight federal election, increasing the number of seats from 161 to 172. Reform elected 66, The Bloc 38, NDP 13 and Conservatives 12. Chrétien was the first PM since King to win 3 straight elections.

January 23, 2006

Harper, Stephen

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Federal Election

The Conservative Party of Canada, led by Stephen Harper, defeated the Liberal Party in a federal election, by a margin of 21 seats, ending 13 years of Liberal rule.

March 26, 2007

Charest, Jean

Politics and Government 

Quebec Liberals Win Election

Jean Charest''s Liberal Party won the provincial election and formed the first minority government in Québec in 130 years. The ADQ unseated the Parti Québécois as the official opposition, and for the first time in 30 years the PQ formed neither the government nor the opposition.

June 07, 2007

Politics and Government 

Duchesne Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Pierre Duchesne was appointed Québec''s 28th lieutenant-governor.

October 14, 2008

Harper, Stephen

Politics and Government 

Conservatives Win Second Minority

The Conservative government, led by Prime Minister Stephen Harper, won a second minority government.

December 08, 2008

Charest, Jean

Politics and Government 

Québec Liberals Win Majority

Jean Charest''s Liberal party won a majority in Québec, making him the first Québec premier since Maurice Duplessis to win three successive mandates in the province.

May 12, 2009

Politics and Government 

Liberals Win in BC

Premier Gordon Campbell led the Liberal Party to a third consecutive majority, the first premier in 25 years to do so.

September 10, 2009

Politics and Government 

Nicholas Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Graydon Nicholas was appointed New Brunswick's 30th lieutenant-governor, and was first aboriginal person in the province to hold the honour.

May 11, 2010

Politics and Government 

Ethell Appointed Lieutenant-Governor

The Honourable Donald S. Ethell was installed as the 17th Lieutenant Governor of Alberta.

March 24, 2012

Thomas Mulcair

People 

Mulcair Becomes NDP Leader

Thomas Mulcair is elected the NDP's new leader, following the death of Jack Layton

October 19, 2012

Politics and Government 

Death of Lincoln Alexander

Lincoln Alexander, CC, OOnt, lawyer, parliamentarian, public servant, lieutenant-governor of Ontario, died in Hamilton, ON. The first Black Canadian to sit in the House of Commons (1968) and to hold a viceregal position (1985).

February 23, 2015

Politics and Government 

MacLauchlan Becomes Premier

Liberal candidate Wade MacLauchlan was sworn in as the 32nd premier of Prince Edward Island, taking over the province's leadership following the resignation of Robert Ghiz. MacLauchlan, who has held professorships in law and written a biography of PEI premier Alex B. Campbell, was president of the University of Prince Edward Island from 1999 to 2011.

May 05, 2015

Politics and Government 

NDP Wins Majority in Alberta Election

In a remarkable electoral upset, the Alberta New Democratic Party won a majority government, ousting the long-reigning Progressive Conservative Party. NDP leader Rachel Notley replaced Jim Prentice as premier. The Tories lost support with voters on economic issues in the lead-up to the election and finished in third place on election night. The Wildrose Party became the Official Opposition.

June 01, 2015

Jacques Parizeau, politician

Politics and Government 

Death of Jacques Parizeau

Jacques Parizeau, who nearly led Québec to sovereignty in the 1995 referendum as premier and head of the Parti Québécois, died at age 84 in Montréal. An economist by training, Parizeau was a key figure in the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, helping to establish public institutions such as the Québec Pension Plan and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.

July 26, 2015

People 

Death of Flora Macdonald

Politician Flora MacDonald, who was secretary of state for External Affairs in the government of Joe Clark (197980) and the first woman to hold such an important federal Cabinet post, died in Ottawa, ON.

September 09, 2015

Queen Elizabeth II Visits Canada

People 

Queen Elizabeth II Becomes Longest-Reigning British Monarch

After 63 years and 216 days on the throne, Queen Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning monarch in British and Commonwealth history, surpassing Queen Victoria.

September 30, 2015

People 

Thibault Sentenced for Fraudulent Expense Claims

Former lieutenant-governor of Québec Lise Thibault was sentenced to 18 months in prison and ordered to repay $200,000 to the federal government and $100,000 to the Québec government. In 2009, Thibault was charged with claiming hundreds of thousands of dollars for personal expenses during her tenure as lieutenant-governor, and in December 2014, she pleaded guilty to six charges of fraud and breach of trust.

October 15, 2015

The Canadian Caper

People 

Death of Ken Taylor

Ken Taylor, the Calgary-born diplomat who famously engineered the escape of six Americans from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis, died in New York City at age 81. (See The Canadian Caper.)

October 19, 2015

Notice of Federal Election

People 

Liberal Majority Ends Nine-Year Tory Rule

At the end of an 11-week campaign — one of the longest in Canadian history — voters elected a majority Liberal government under Justin Trudeau, denying Stephen Harper's Conservatives a fourth federal mandate. The 2015 election marked the end of Harper's nine-year term as prime minister, and following the results he resigned as leader of the Conservative Party.

October 22, 2015

Gilles Duceppe, politician

People 

Duceppe Resigns as Leader of the Bloc Québécois

Gilles Duceppe stepped down as leader of the Bloc Québécois in the wake of the October 2015 federal election. Although the Bloc won 10 seats more than doubling its count from the 2011 election, in which the party was devastated by the NDP's "orange wave" in Québec Duceppe lost in his own riding and the party emerged two seats short of official party status in the House of Commons. This was Duceppe's second resignation from the Bloc's leadership after stepping down in 2011 and returning in 2015.

November 04, 2015

Justin Trudeau

People 

Justin Trudeau Sworn In as Prime Minister

Justin Trudeau was sworn in as the 23rd prime minister of Canada at a ceremony in Ottawa, followed by the swearing-in of the country's first gender-balanced Cabinet of 15 men and 15 women. Trudeau's Liberal Party was elected to a majority government in the October 2015 federal election, ending nine years of Conservative government under Prime Minister Stephen Harper.

November 04, 2015

People 

First Gender-Balanced Federal Cabinet

Newly elected prime minister Justin Trudeau appointed 15 women to his 30-member Cabinet the first time in Canadian history that a federal Cabinet included an equal number of men and women.

November 30, 2015

Liberal Party, logo

Provincial Politics 

Liberal Victory in Newfoundland and Labrador

Liberal candidate Dwight Ball was elected premier of Newfoundland and Labrador in the province's 20th general provincial election. The Liberals won by a landslide, taking 31 of the province's 40 seats. The Conservatives, who had governed for the preceding 12 years, won seven seats and the NDP took two.

December 03, 2015

People 

Death of Bill Bennett

Former British Columbia premier Bill Bennett died in his hometown of Kelowna, BC. He succeeded his father, W.A.C. Bennett, as Social Credit party leader and then premier, an office he held from 1975 to 1986. Known for his strong commitment to public service and his fiscally conservative policies, Bill Bennett has been credited with spearheading development that modernized the province. Some of his notable projects include the Lower Mainland's SkyTrain, the Coquihalla Highway and Expo 86.

December 30, 2015

Provincial Politics 

Death of Howard Pawley

Howard Pawley, the Ontario-born lawyer who served as NDP premier of Manitoba from 1981 to 1988, died in Windsor, Ontario, at age 81.

January 05, 2016

Provincial Politics 

Death of Jean-Paul L'Allier

Jean-Paul L'Allier, who served as a Québec's minister of Communications during the October Crisis and later as mayor of Québec City from 1989 to 2005, died in Québec City at age 77.

March 22, 2016

Mayor Rob Ford in the Speaker's seat at Toronto City Hall on November 18, 2013.

People 

Death of Rob Ford

Rob Ford, the municipal politician who became an international celebrity during his scandal-plagued term as the mayor of Toronto from 2010 to 2014, died after a battle with cancer. A staunch conservative, Ford campaigned against tax hikes and fought to cut spending at City Hall, famously running for office under the slogan "stop the gravy train."

April 04, 2016

Brad Wall

Provincial Politics 

Saskatchewan Party Re-elected

The Saskatchewan Party won a third majority in the 2016 provincial election, giving Brad Wall a third consecutive term as premier. The election was a harsh defeat for Saskatchewan’s NDP Opposition, whose leader, Cam Broten, lost his own seat.

April 10, 2016

Thomas Mulcair

People 

NDP Votes to Oust Tom Mulcair as Leader

In the wake of the NDP's devastating performance in the 2015 federal election, Thomas Mulcair lost the position of party leader when 52 per cent of delegates at the party's convention in Edmonton voted against his leadership. Mulcair decided to remain in his post until a new leader was chosen.

April 19, 2016

Manitoba Flag

Provincial Politics 

Progressive Conservatives Win Manitoba Election

Manitobans elected Progressive Conservative leader Brian Pallister to a majority government, ending nearly 17 years of NDP rule.

May 10, 2016

Flag of the United Nations

People 

Canada Supports UN Declaration on Indigenous Rights

Indigenous Affairs minister Carolyn Bennett announced Canada’s full support of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The Conservative government under Stephen Harper had endorsed the declaration in 2010, but with qualifications that gave Canada “objector” status at the UN with respect to the document. Bennett's announcement removed this status. The declaration recognizes a wide range of Indigenous rights, from basic human rights to land, language and self-determination rights.

May 28, 2016

Gay Pride Vancouver

People 

Conservative Party Ends Opposition to Gay Marriage

At the federal Conservative Party convention in Vancouver, members voted to end the party’s opposition to same-sex marriage by deleting the definition of marriage from its official policy. Many Conservatives spoke out in support of the values of equality and respect embodied in this decision. Same-sex marriage has been legal across Canada since the Civil Marriage Act was passed in 2005.

May 30, 2016

Kathleen Wynne

Provincial Politics 

Premier Wynne Issues Residential Schools Apology

In response to the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Ontario premier Kathleen Wynne formally apologized for the abuses committed against Indigenous peoples in the residential school system, as well as for the oppressive policies and practices supported by past Ontario governments. The province announced a $250-million, three-year investment in a number of initiatives aimed at reconciliation.

June 14, 2016

People  Provincial Politics 

Death of Gilles Lamontagne

Former Québec City mayor and federal Member of Parliament Gilles Lamontagne died in Montréal at age 97. Lamontagne served with the Royal Canadian Air Force during the Second World War and survived two years as a prisoner of war after his plane was shot down over the Netherlands. In addition to his tenure as mayor of Québec City from 1965 to 1977, his distinguished political career included positions as defence minister in Pierre Trudeau’s Liberal government and as lieutenant-governor of Québec. He was named an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1990.

August 03, 2016

Mel Hurtig

People 

Death of Mel Hurtig

Publisher and nationalist Mel Hurtig, who first published The Canadian Encyclopedia (1985 and 1988), died in Vancouver, British Columbia. The Edmonton native also co-founded the Council of Canadians and wrote a number of books on Canadian society and politics.

November 08, 2016

International politics 

Donald Trump Wins US Presidential Election

Republican Party candidate Donald Trump won the United States presidential election, beating Democrat Hillary Clinton in a historic upset. Clinton, vying to be the first woman president, was favoured to win over the controversial billionaire businessman Trump, who divided Republicans throughout his campaign. On election night, as results increasingly pointed to a victory for Trump, Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s website crashed due to an overwhelming surge in traffic. (See also: Citizenship; Immigration; Canada and the United States.)

January 01, 2017

People 

Death of Yvon Dupuis

Yvon Dupuis, a Québec provincial Liberal MNA and federal MP, died at the age of 90 (see Liberal Party and Québec Liberal Party)


January 10, 2017

People 

Karina Gould Becomes Youngest Female Cabinet Minister

Karina Gould, the member of Parliament for Burlington, Ontario, was named minister of Democratic Institutions in the Liberal government of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and tasked with overseeing the electoral reform file. At age 29, she became the youngest woman ever to serve as a federal Cabinet minister. Gould’s election to Parliament in 2015 marked the end of a nine-year Conservative hold on the riding of Burlington. (See also Women in Politics.)

January 25, 2017

People 

Death of Marcel Prud’homme

Marcel Prud’homme, Liberal MP (1964–93) and independent Senator (1993–2009) from Québec, died at the age of 82.

January 26, 2017

People 

Death of Raynald Guay

Raynald Guay, lawyer and Liberal MP (1963–80) from Québec, died at the age of 83.

February 09, 2017

People 

Death of Donald Brothers

Lawyer Donald Leslie Brothers, a Member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia (1958–72) and Cabinet minister for the Social Credit Party, died at the age of 93.

February 22, 2017

People 

Death of Gordon Currie

Gordon Currie, who served in the Canadian Navy during the Second World War and as a Progressive Conservative cabinet minister in Saskatchewan, died at the age of 93. A highly successful high school coach, he was a Member of the Order of Canada and inducted into the Saskatchewan Sports Hall of Fame and the Canadian Football Hall of Fame.

February 23, 2017

People 

Death of Don Cousens

Progressive Conservative politician Don Cousens, a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario (1981–93) and former mayor of Markham (1994–2006), died at the age of 78.

February 28, 2017

People 

Death of James McGrath

Progressive Conservative politician James McGrath, a Member of Parliament (1957–63, 1968–86) and Cabinet minister and Lieutenant-Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador (1986–91), died at the age of 85. (voir Lieutenant-Governors of Newfoundland and Labrador)

March 08, 2017

People 

Death of Margaret Mitchell

Margaret Mitchell, New Democratic Party Member of Parliament for Vancouver East (1979–93), died at the age of 92. She was one of the first politicians to bring Parliament’s attention to violence against women. (see Family violence)

March 21, 2017

People 

Death of Bill Rompkey

Bill Rompkey, Liberal Member of Parliament (1972–95) and Senator (1995–2011) for Newfoundland and Labrador, died of cancer at the age of 80.

April 06, 2017

People 

Death of Gordon Carton

Progressive Conservative politician Gordon Carton died at the age of 95. Carton was a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario (1963–75) and cabinet minister in the Bill Davis government.

April 14, 2017

People 

Death of James Smith

James Smith, Commissionner of Yukon from 1966 to 1976, died at the age of 97. Smith was a joint founder of the Arctic Winter Games.

April 30, 2017

People 

Death of Leone Bagnall

Progressive Conservative politician Leone Bagnall died at the age of 83. Bagnall was a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island (1979–93) and the first woman cabinet minister of her provincial party.

May 02, 2017

People  Provincial Politics 

Death of Paul MacEwan

Paul MacEwan, former Member of the Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia, died at the age of 74. He served in the Nova Scotian parliament for 33 years continuously (1970–2003).

May 02, 2017

People  Provincial Politics 

Death of Gerry Martiniuk

Progressive Conservative politician Gerry Martiniuk died at the age of 79. Martiniuk served as a Member of the Provincial Parliament of Ontario from 1995 to 2011. He was first elected when the Mike Harris government swept into power with its “Common Sense Revolution” campaign.

May 09, 2017

Provincial Politics 

BC Elects First Minority Government Since 1952

The 2017 election in British Columbia resulted in the province’s first minority government since 1952. In the initial outcome, Premier Christy Clark’s Liberals held onto power with 43 seats, while the NDP won 41 and the Green Party, 3. Later that month, however, Green Party leader Andrew Weaver and NDP leader John Horgan jointly announced that the Greens would support the NDP on any confidence motion. Finally, on 29 June, the Liberals lost a confidence motion put forward by the NDP, and Lieutenant-Governor Judith Guichon asked the NDP to form a government under the leadership of Horgan.

May 09, 2017

People 

Death of Ron Atkey

Ron Atkey, Member of Parliament for the Progressive Conservative Party (1972–74) and Minister of Employment and Immigration (1979–80), died at the age of 75. He played an important role in the decision to allow 50,000 Vietnamese refugees to immigrate to Canada.

May 20, 2017

People 

Death of Roger Tassé

Roger Tassé, architect of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and Officer of the Order of Canada, died at the age of 85.

May 24, 2017

People  Provincial Politics 

Death of Grace McCarthy

Trailblazing Social Credit politician Grace McCarthy died at the age of 89. McCarthy was a cabinet minister in British Columbia under Bill Bennett (1975–86) and Bill Vander Zalm (1986–88).

May 24, 2017

People  Provincial Politics 

Death of Grace McCarthy

Trailblazing Social Credit politician Grace McCarthy died at the age of 89. McCarthy was a cabinet minister in British Columbia under Bill Bennett (1975–86) and Bill Vander Zalm (1986–88).

May 27, 2017

Andrew Scheer

People 

Andrew Scheer Elected Conservative Leader

Andrew Scheer, the 38-year-old MP for Regina-Qu’Appelle and former Speaker of the House of Commons, was voted the new leader of the Conservative Party, succeeding former prime minister Stephen Harper in the role.

June 07, 2017

People 

Death of Charles-Eugène Marin

Charles-Eugène Marin, doctor and member of Parliament for the Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney (1984–93), died at the age of 91.

June 08, 2017

People 

Death of LeRoy Fjordbotten

LeRoy Fjordbotten, Member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta and cabinet minister for the Progressive Conservative governments of Peter Lougheed, Don Getty and Ralph Klein (1979–93), died at the age of 78.

June 21, 2017

Office of the Prime Minister and Privy Council

People 

Trudeau Announces Renaming of Langevin Block

On National Aboriginal Day 2017, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that, in the spirit of reconciliation, Parliament’s Langevin Block would be renamed Office of the Prime Minister and Privy Council. Sir Hector-Louis Langevin (after whom the building was named) played an important role in Confederation but was also one of the original architects of the residential schools system, which was designed to assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture.

June 29, 2017

John Horgan

Provincial Politics 

BC Liberals Toppled by Vote of Non-Confidence

After the 2017 provincial election in British Columbia resulted in a minority government, the NDP put forward a confidence motion that, with the support of the Green Party, overthrew Christy Clark’s Liberals. Lieutenant-Governor Judith Guichon asked the NDP to form a government under the leadership of John Horgan.

July 13, 2017

People 

Julie Payette Named Governor General Designate

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that astronaut Julie Payette would become Canada’s 29th governor general, succeeding David Johnston. She was sworn in in the fall of 2017.

August 04, 2017

Christy Clark

Provincial Politics 

Christy Clark Retires from Public Life

Weeks after her minority government was toppled by a vote of non-confidence, Christy Clark stepped down as leader of British Columbia’s Liberal Party and as an MLA. Having spent six years as premier and more than two decades in politics, she stated that she was “done with public life.”

August 28, 2017

Indian Act

People 

Federal Government Pledges to Scrap Indian Act

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced the division of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) into two departments, naming Jane Philpott minister of Indigenous Services and Carolyn Bennett minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs. Bennett was given the long-term task of ending the Indian Act and transferring certain government powers back to Indigenous peoples. The recommendation to replace INAC with two departments was originally made in the 1996 report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.

September 12, 2017

People 

Death of Allan MacEachern

Former Liberal Cabinet minister Allan MacEachern, of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, died in Antigonish at age 96. An influential parliamentarian who played a key role in passing health-care and labour legislation that helped shape modern Canadian society, MacEachern is also remembered for his contributions to Atlantic Canada and his devotion to his constituents in Inverness. He was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 2008.

September 14, 2017

People 

Death of Arnold Chan

Arnold Chan, Liberal member of Parliament for the Ontario riding of Scarborough-Agincourt, died at age 50 after a battle with cancer. He was remembered by colleagues in Parliament and at the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, where he previously served as an aide, as an exemplary politician who deeply valued democracy and civic engagement. In a statement, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau wrote, “he distinguished himself as a thoughtful, kind and — above all — tireless advocate for Canadians.”

October 01, 2017

New Democratic Party Logo

People 

Jagmeet Singh Wins Federal NDP Leadership

The New Democrats elected Jagmeet Singh to replace Tom Mulcair and lead the party into the 2019 federal election. A member of provincial parliament with a seat in Brampton, the 38-year-old Sikh criminal lawyer served as deputy leader of the Ontario NDP before stepping down to run for the federal leadership. Singh is the first member of a visible minority to lead a federal political party in Canada.

October 02, 2017

People 

​Julie Payette Becomes Governor General

Astronaut Julie Payette was installed as Canada’s 29th governor general, succeeding David Johnston.

October 18, 2017

Quebec Values Charter

Provincial Politics 

Bill 62 adopted in Quebec

Bill 62 (or An Act to foster adherence to State religious neutrality and, in particular, to provide a framework for requests for accommodations on religious grounds in certain bodies) was adopted in Quebec at l'Assemblée Nationale on 18 October 2017. The Bill concerns religious neutrality in the public sphere and is controversial. Following its adoption, which made headlines across the country, protests ensued in Quebec.

November 05, 2017

Montréal at dawn

People 

Valérie Plante, 1st woman mayor of Montreal

Voters elected community organizer and city councillor Valérie Plante as Montréal’s first woman mayor.

November 05, 2017

International politics 

Paradise Papers leaked

The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) released the “Paradise Papers,” millions of confidential records that revealed the names of individuals, trusts, foundations and companies that placed money in offshore tax havens. More than 3,000 Canadians were implicated in the documents.

November 28, 2017

Gay Pride Parade

People 

Justin Trudeau apologizes for LGBTQ2S discrimination

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau apologized for discrimination done or condoned by the Federal government and its agencies against LGBTQ2S Canadians. The apology came with a $145 million compensation package.

December 04, 2017

People 

Mary Coyle and Mary Jane McCallum appointed as independent senators

Mary Coyle and Mary Jane McCallum were appointed as independent senators on 4 December 2017 by the Governor General Julie Payette on recommendation by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. Mary Coyle is from Nova Scotia and focused her career on post-secondary education and the non-profit sector. Dr. Mary Jane McCallum is a Cree woman from Manitoba who dedicated her career for social justice for First Nations communities across Manitoba, namely by providing dental care.

December 20, 2017

International politics 

Canada files trade complaint against the USA with WTO

Canada filed a complaint with the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the United States for its use of anti-dumping and anti-subsidy duties. According to Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland, the complaint targetted the trade of softwood lumber in an attempt to defend Canada’s forestry jobs. Canada sends 75 per cent of its total exports to the United States.

February 15, 2018

Provincial Politics 

Candidates chosen for the Ontario PC leadership race

Christine Elliott, Tanya Granic Allen, Caroline Mulroney and Doug Ford entered a snap election for leadership of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party. The race was triggered after party leader Patrick Brown was forced to step down following accusations of sexual assault.

June 07, 2018

Provincial Politics 

PC Party wins majority government in Ontario

PC Party leader Doug Ford won a majority government in Ontario’s 2018 general election. The premier-designate was voted into Queen’s Park with 76 seats and nearly 41 per cent of the popular vote. This victory ended nearly 15 years of Liberal government, first under Dalton McGuinty from 2003 to 2013, and then under Kathleen Wynne from 2013 to 2018. A total of 58 per cent of the electorate exercised its right to vote, compared to 51 per cent in the previous election. The NDP gained official opposition status under Andrea Horwath with 40 candidates elected. The Liberals won only 7 seats at Queen’s Park, falling short of the 8 required for official party status. Kathleen Wynne resigned as leader of the Ontario Liberal Party. The Green Party succeeded in getting its first Ontario MPP elected — its leader Mike Schreiner in the riding of Guelph.

January 14, 2019

Justin Trudeau

Politics and Government 

Trudeau Shuffles Cabinet

In anticipation of the federal election in the fall, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau shuffled his Cabinet, moving Jody Wilson-Raybould from justice to veterans affairs, and naming Jane Philpott President of the Treasury Board and Minister of Digital Government. Trudeau called Philpott a “natural choice” for her new role and attempted to dispel the notion that Wilson-Raybould’s move was a demotion, saying, “She is extraordinarily capable of delivering on this file that is one of the core delivery mandates that the federal government has.”

January 15, 2019

Chrystia Freeland

International politics 

Teen Granted Asylum in Canada After Fleeing Saudi Arabia

Eighteen-year-old Rahaf Mohammed Alqunun, who fled from her family while on vacation and live-tweeted her plight from a barricaded hotel room in Thailand, was granted asylum in Canada and flown to Toronto. Alqunun alleged that she had been abused by her family and feared she would have been killed if returned to Saudi Arabia.

January 25, 2019

john-mccallum

International politics 

John McCallum Fired from Post as Canada’s Ambassador to China

After repeatedly stating that it would be “great for Canada” if the United States ceased its attempts to extradite Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou, John McCallum was asked by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to resign from his position as Canada’s Ambassador to China.

January 29, 2019

Spruce Court Apartments

Politics and Government 

Ottawa Pledges $114.7 Million for Asylum-Seeker Housing

The federal government earmarked $114.7 million to compensate provinces and cities for the costs of temporary housing for asylum seekers. The amount was in addition to $50 million that was promised to Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec in the summer of 2018. However, the financial commitment fell short of the $200 million and $300 million that Ontario and Quebec, respectively, estimated to have spent.

January 30, 2019

John Horgan

Politics and Government  Provincial Politics 

BC’s Minority NDP Government Wins Crucial Byelection

The provincial NDP maintained its fragile hold on power in BC when Sheila Malcolmson won a critical byelection in Nanaimo, beating BC Liberal candidate Tony Harris by ten points. The victory allowed the NDP-Green Party coalition to maintain control of 44 seats in the legislature, compared to 42 for the opposition BC Liberals.

February 06, 2019

paul-dewar

People 

NDP MP Paul Dewar Dies

Former teacher and union leader Paul Dewar died at age 56 after a year-long battle with brain cancer. He served as the MP for Ottawa Centre from 2006 to 2015 and was the NDP’s foreign affairs critic for many years.

February 10, 2019

Canadian Parliament

People 

Former Finance Minister and Diplomat Michael Wilson Dies at Age 81

A former Progressive Conservative MP for Etobicoke Centre, Wilson served in Parliament for more than ten years. He was finance minister and minister of international trade under Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. Wilson was Canada’s ambassador to the United States from 2006 to 2009 and served as chancellor of the University of Toronto from 2012 to 2018.

February 12, 2019

Legislature of BC, Interior

Provincial Politics 

BC Legislature Resumes After Spending Scandal

Speaker Daryl Plekas delivered the throne speech that reopened the BC Legislature following a spending scandal that rocked all three parties. After declaring in November 2018 that he had “established processes in the legislative assembly that are essentially bulletproof,” Legislative Clerk Craig James, along with sergeant-at-arms Gary Lens, were found to have approved thousands of dollars of inapporpriate spending on items ranging from liquor to a wood-chipper. James and Lens were suspended amid a police investigation and an impeding report by Plekas.

February 12, 2019

People  Politics and Government 

Jody Wilson-Raybould Resigns from Cabinet Amid SNC-Lavalin Scandal

Jody Wilson-Raybould, who had been Justice Minister until a Cabinet shuffle on 14 January, resigned from Cabinet days after news broke that the Prime Minister’s Office allegedly pressured her to help Quebec construction firm SNC-Lavalin avoid facing criminal prosecution. In the wake of the news, Justin Trudeau’s principal secretary Gerald Butts resigned on 18 February and a federal hearing on the issue was held beginning on 20 February. In her testimony to the hearing on 27 February, Wilson-Raybould claimed that almost a dozen senior government officials made a “sustained effort” to convince her to drop charges against SNC-Lavalin. Trudeau disagreed with her recollection of events and claimed that he and his staff “always acted appropriately and professionally” on the matter.

February 12, 2019

Carbon Tax

Politics and Government 

Ontario and Saskatchewan in Court Over Carbon Tax

The province of Saskatchewan argued to the Saskatchewan Court of Appeals that the federal government should not be able to impose a carbon tax on unwilling provinces, which also include Ontario and New Brunswick. Representatives for the federal government argued that it is a “regulatory charge,” not a tax, and that carbon emissions fall within federal jurisdiction because they are a matter of “national concern.”

February 25, 2019

Jagmeet Singh

People  Politics and Government 

Jagmeet Singh Wins Burnaby South Byelection

NDP leader Jagmeet Singh secured a seat in the House of Commons by winning a byelection in Burnaby South with 39 per cent of the vote, besting Liberal candidate Richard T. Lee’s (26 per cent) and Conservative candidate Jay Shin (22 per cent). Singh had accused Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of delaying the hotly contested election, which Singh needed to win in order to lead his party from within Parliament.