Browse "Agents & Organizations"

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Editorial

Editorial: Baldwin, LaFontaine and Responsible Government

The BaldwinLaFontaine government of 1848 has been called the “great ministry.” In addition to establishing responsible government, it had an incomparable record of legislation. It established a public school system and finalized the founding of the University of Toronto. It set up municipal governments and pacified French-Canadian nationalism after a period of unrest. Responsible government did not transform Canada overnight into a fully developed democracy. But it was an important milestone along the road to political autonomy. Most importantly, it provided an opportunity for French Canadians to find a means for their survival through the British Constitution. The partnership and friendship between Baldwin and LaFontaine were brilliant examples of collaboration that have been all too rare in Canadian history.

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Equal Rights Association

The Equal Rights Association for the Province of Ontario, established June of 1889 in Toronto, was formed in response to Québec's JESUITS' ESTATES ACT. The ERA criticized Catholic interference in politics and what it saw as the subservience of politicians to the Roman Catholic Church.

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Fraser Institute

The Fraser Institute is a nonprofit group established in 1974 under federal charter with offices in Vancouver (headquarters) and Toronto. The institute, which has been noted for its conservative views, operates as a research and educational organization that supports free enterprise.

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Green Party of Canada

The Green Party of Canada is a federal political party that advocates environmentalism as the key to a sustainable society. Three Green Party candidates were elected to the House of Commons in the October 2019 federal election. Elizabeth May, who became party leader in 2006, resigned from that position in November 2019. The party will be led by Jo-Ann Roberts until a leadership vote is held in 2020.

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House Leader

House Leader, nonofficial title of MP nominated by each party to serve as head strategist and tactician in the House of Commons. The government House leader, a Cabinet member with the honorific title of president of the Privy Council, negotiates among parties about the Commons timetable.

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Indian Agents in Canada

Indian agents were the Canadian government’s representatives on First Nations reserves from the 1830s to the 1960s. Often working in isolated locations far from settler communities, Indian agents implemented government policy, enforced and administered the provisions of the Indian Act, and managed the day-to-day affairs of Status Indians. Today, the position of Indian agent no longer exists, as First Nations manage their own affairs through modern band councils or self-government.

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Labour Canada

Labour Canada, established 1900 as the Department of Labour under the Conciliation Act to "aid in the prevention and settlement of trade disputes." In 1994, it became a ministry within the newly created Department of Human Resources Development.

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Labour Organization

The first labour organizations in Canada appeared in the early 19th century, but their growth and development really occurred in the early decades of the 20th century. During most of the 19th century labour unions were local, sporadic and short-lived.

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Labour Party

 That workers should have political representatives of their own class has been a recurrent theme in Canadian labour history, but no one organization has provided a permanent home for this idea. Many union leaders have preferred to advance their cause through established political parties.