Treaties | The Canadian Encyclopedia

Browse "Treaties"

Displaying 1-15 of 50 results
  • Article

    A Dish with One Spoon

    The term a dish with one spoon refers to a concept developed by the Indigenous peoples of the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America. It was used to describe how land can be shared to the mutual benefit of all its inhabitants. According to the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), the concept originated many hundreds of years ago and contributed greatly to the creation of the “Great League of Peace” — the Iroquois Confederacy made up of the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, and Mohawk nations. The Anishinaabeg (the Ojibwe, Odawa, Potawatomi, Mississauga, Saulteaux and Algonquin nations) refer to “a dish with one spoon” or “our dish” as “Gdoo – naaganinaa.”

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/122dc04b-d0a1-4551-a912-1bee8991746b.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/122dc04b-d0a1-4551-a912-1bee8991746b.jpg A Dish with One Spoon
  • Article

    Bond-Blaine Treaty

    In the 1880s, parts of Newfoundland's government and mercantile community felt that RECIPROCITY with the US would solve growing economic problems by providing new markets for dried cod.

    "https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Bond-Blaine Treaty
  • Article

    Covenant Chain

    The Covenant Chain is the name given to the complex system of alliances between the Haudenosaunee (also known as the Six Nations and Iroquois League) and Anglo-American colonies originating in the early 17th century. The first alliances were most likely between New York and the Kanyen'kehà:ka (Mohawk). These early agreements were referred to figuratively as chains because they bound multiple parties together in alliance. Today the Covenant Chain represents the long tradition of diplomatic relations in North America, and is often invoked when discussing contemporary affairs between the state and Indigenous peoples. (See also Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/122dc04b-d0a1-4551-a912-1bee8991746b.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/122dc04b-d0a1-4551-a912-1bee8991746b.jpg Covenant Chain
  • Article

    Crawford Purchase

    The Crawford Purchase of 1783 is one of the oldest land agreements between British authorities and Indigenous peoples in Upper Canada (later Ontario). It resulted in a large tract of territory along the north shore of the upper St. Lawrence River and the eastern end of Lake Ontario being opened for settlement by displaced Loyalists and Indigenous peoples who fought for and supported Britain during the American Revolution. The Crawford Purchase is one of many agreements made during the late 18th and 19th centuries, known collectively as the Upper Canada Land Surrenders. (See also Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/UCLS/345446e9-d0d1-4626-9702-e214ca87a8a7.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/UCLS/345446e9-d0d1-4626-9702-e214ca87a8a7.jpg Crawford Purchase
  • Article

    Crown Grant to the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte

    The Crown Grant to the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte, also known as Treaty 3½ or the Simcoe Deed, was issued in 1793. (See also Haudenosaunee and Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory.) Ten years earlier, the Crawford Purchase had acquired a large piece of territory. The British granted a small portion of this purchase to the Mohawks in recognition of their support to the Crown during the American Revolution. Gradually, the Crown grant was reduced due to encroachment by non-Indigenous settlers. The ownership of the land is still being contested. (See also Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada and Upper Canada Land Surrenders.)

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/new_article_images/Tyendinaga/LandingOfTheMohawks.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/new_article_images/Tyendinaga/LandingOfTheMohawks.jpg Crown Grant to the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte
  • Article

    Ipperwash Crisis

    The Ipperwash Crisis took place in 1995 on land in and around Ontario’s Ipperwash Provincial Park, which was claimed by the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation. The underlying cause of the crisis was the appropriation of the Stoney Point Reserve in 1942 by the federal government for use as a military camp. After repeated requests for the land to be returned, members of the Stony Point First Nation occupied the camp in 1993 and in 1995. On 4 September 1995 protesters also occupied Ipperwash Provincial Park nearby. Tension between the protesters and the OPP increased, resulting in a confrontation on 6 September 1995 during which Dudley George, an Ojibwa protestor, was killed.

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/bcf04d96-a331-4532-bed5-98ee62f4034e.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/bcf04d96-a331-4532-bed5-98ee62f4034e.jpg Ipperwash Crisis
  • Article

    John Collins' Purchase

    John Collins’ Purchase of 1785 is one of the oldest land agreements between Indigenous peoples and British authorities in Upper Canada (later Ontario). It concerned the use of lands extending from the northwestern end of Lake Simcoe to Matchedash Bay, an inlet off Georgian Bay in Lake Huron. The purpose was to provide the British with a protected inland water route between Lake Ontario and Lake Huron, away from potential American interference. This passage was necessary for trade and the resupply of British western outposts. John Collins’ Purchase is one of many agreements made during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, known as the Upper Canada Land Surrenders.

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/UCLS/345446e9-d0d1-4626-9702-e214ca87a8a7.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/UCLS/345446e9-d0d1-4626-9702-e214ca87a8a7.jpg John Collins' Purchase
  • Article

    Johnson-Butler Purchase

    The Johnson-Butler Purchase of 1787–88 (also known as the “Gunshot Treaty,” referring to the distance a person could hear a gunshot from the lake’s edge) is one of the earliest land agreements between representatives of the Crown and the Indigenous peoples of Upper Canada (later Ontario). It resulted in a large tract of territory along the central north shore of Lake Ontario being opened for settlement. These lands became part of the Williams Treaties of 1923. (See also Upper Canada Land Surrenders and Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/UCLS/345446e9-d0d1-4626-9702-e214ca87a8a7.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/UCLS/345446e9-d0d1-4626-9702-e214ca87a8a7.jpg Johnson-Butler Purchase
  • Article

    London Township Treaty (No. 6)

    The London Township Treaty of 1796 (also known as Treaty 6 in the Upper Canada treaties numbering system) was an early land agreement between First Nations and British authorities in Upper Canada (later Ontario). It was one of a series of Upper Canada Land Surrenders. The London Township Treaty encompassed a tract of land 12 miles square (about 31 kilometres square) in the southwestern part of the colony. The British originally purchased it as the location to establish the capital of the colony, but York (modern Toronto) became the capital instead. (See also Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/DundasLondonON.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/DundasLondonON.jpg London Township Treaty (No. 6)
  • Article

    Manitoulin Island Treaty 1836

    On 9 August 1836, the Odawa and Ojibwe signed the Manitoulin Island Treaty. This treaty is also referred to as Treaty 45 or the Bond Head Treaty. In signing the document, both the Odawa and Ojibwe agreed to Sir Francis Bond Head’s requested proposal that they would “relinquish [their] respective Claims to these Islands, and make them the Property (under your Great Father's control) of all Indians whom he shall allow to reside on them?” The Manitoulin Island Treaty formed part of Head’s efforts to open more lands for settlement. Part of this included relocating First Nations people in Upper Canada to Manitoulin Island (see also First Nations in Ontario). It also served to remove and isolate First Nations people. Head argued this was meant to allow for their “civilization” or “extinction” away from the negative influences of settlers.

    "https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Manitoulin Island Treaty 1836
  • Article

    Manitoulin Island Treaty 1862

    The Manitoulin Island Treaty of 1862 was signed on 6 October 1862. The treaty sought to open approximately 23,000 islands within the Manitoulin Island chain for European Canadian settlement and resource extraction. It is also known as the McDougall Treaty or Treaty 94. The document saw the creation of five reserves under the treaty terms. The people residing on Manitoulin Island’s eastern peninsula refused to participate in the treaty process. This refusal led to Wiikwemkoong’s lands remaining unceded (see Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory). As a result, those lands are governed by the terms of the 1836 Manitoulin Island Treaty.

    "https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Manitoulin Island Treaty 1862
  • Article

    McKee's Purchase

    McKee’s Purchase of 1790 (also known as the McKee Treaty and Treaty 2) was an early land agreement between Indigenous peoples and British authorities in Upper Canada (later Ontario). It is the southernmost Upper Canada treaty and consisted of a large strip of territory from the southwestern shore of Lake Erie north to the Thames River and east to a point southwest of modern-day London, Ontario. This land was made available for settlement by Loyalists who were displaced by the American Revolution.

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/McKeesPurchaseMonument.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/McKeesPurchaseMonument.jpg McKee's Purchase
  • Article

    Michilimackinac Island Treaty No.1 (1781)

    In May 1781, the Anishinaabeg (Chippewa/Ojibwe) of the Straits of Mackinac region deeded Mackinac Island to the British (see also Upper Canada Land Surrenders). The treaty was recorded both in writing and in wampum. It utilized Anishinaabeg and British legal traditions to confirm the transfer of the island’s ownership to the British Crown. This agreement confirmed British use and occupancy of the island where a new fortification and village were under construction.

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/FortMackinac.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/FortMackinac.jpg Michilimackinac Island Treaty No.1 (1781)
  • Article

    Murray Treaty of Longueuil (1760)

    On 5 September 1760, three days before the Capitulation of Montreal, the chief of the Huron-Wendat of Lorette, who had accompanied the retreating French army from Quebec to the Montreal region, approached General James Murray at Longueuil. A treaty of peace — known as the Murray Treaty of Longueuil or simply, the Murray Treaty — was concluded whereby the Huron-Wendat came under British protection. (See also Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/32a4e97d-85ed-4182-acd7-1f2fa6862fe7.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/32a4e97d-85ed-4182-acd7-1f2fa6862fe7.jpg Murray Treaty of Longueuil (1760)
  • Article

    Niagara Purchase

    The Niagara Purchase of 1781, also known as Treaty 381, was one of the first land agreements between Indigenous peoples and British authorities in Upper Canada (later Ontario). It resulted in a six-and-a-half kilometre-wide strip along the west bank of the Niagara River, which connects Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, being made available for settlement by Loyalists who were displaced by the American Revolution. The Niagara Purchase was one of many agreements made in the 1700s and 1800s, which are collectively known as the Upper Canada Land Surrenders.

    "https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/NiagaraLate1700s.jpg" // resources/views/front/categories/view.blade.php
    
    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/NiagaraLate1700s.jpg Niagara Purchase