Browse "Confederation"

Article

Anne Brown

Anne Brown, née Nelson, wife, mother (born 1827 in Edinburgh, Scotland; died 6 May 1906 in Edinburgh).

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Canada First

Canada First, nationalist movement founded 1868 by Ontarians George Denison, Henry Morgan, Charles Mair and William Foster and by Robert Grant Haliburton, a Nova Scotian living in Ottawa.

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Charles Stanley, 4th Viscount Monck

Charles Stanley Monck, 4th Viscount in the Irish peerage and 1st Baron in the UK peerage, governor general of BNA, 1861-67, governor general of Canada and Prince Edward Island, 1867-68 (b in Templemore, Tipperary, Ire 10 Oct 1819; d at his Irish residence, Charleville, Enniskerry 29 Nov 1894).

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Fathers of Confederation

The 36 men traditionally regarded as the Fathers of Confederation were those who represented British North American colonies at one or more of the conferences that led to Confederation on 1 July 1867, including the Charlottetown Conference (September 1864), the Québec Conference (October 1864) and the London Conference (1866–67).

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George Anthony Walkem

Associated with Amor DE COSMOS in the Confederation League before BC joined CONFEDERATION, George Walkem became attorney general in De Cosmos's Cabinet and succeeded him as premier on 11 Feb 1874.

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George Brown

George Brown, journalist, politician (born 29 November 1818 in Alloa, Scotland; died 9 May 1880 in Toronto, ON).

Speech

George Brown: 1865 Speech in Favour of Confederation

George Brown played an instrumental role in establishing Confederation. As leader of the Clear Grits (forerunner of the Liberal Party) in Canada West, he set aside political differences and allied with his Conservative rivals John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1864, with whom he pitched Confederation to the Atlantic colonies at the Charlottetown and Québec Conferences. From 3 February to 13 March 1865, politicians in the Province of Canada debated the terms of Confederation, offering some of the most compelling defences and critiques of the union of British North American colonies. In the following speech, delivered before the legislature of the Province of Canada on 8 February 1865, Brown explains his reasons for supporting Confederation.

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Great Coalition

The politics of the Province of Canada in the early 1860s were marked by instability and deadlock. The Great Coalition of 1864 united Reformers and Conservatives in the cause of constitutional reform.

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Joseph Howe

Seeking to rise above "the muddy pool of politics," he tried unsuccessfully to arrange the building of the Halifax-to-Québec Railway. As chief commissioner, he began the Nova Scotia Railway in 1854, however, and saw completion of the lines from Halifax to Windsor and Truro.

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Mifflin Gibbs

Mifflin Wistar Gibbs, politician, judge, diplomat, banker, entrepreneur (born 17 April 1823 in Philadelphia, PA; died 11 July 1915, in Little Rock, AR). Gibbs was a notable figure in both American and Canadian history. In just over a decade in colonial British Columbia, he prospered in business, advocated for the Black community, served as an elected official and helped guide British Columbia into Confederation. Gibbs was the first Black person elected to public office in what is now British Columbia.

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Sir Charles Tupper

Sir Charles Tupper, prime minister, premier of Nova Scotia (1864–67), doctor (born 2 July 1821 in Amherst, NS; died 30 October 1915 in Bexleyheath, England).

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Sir Hector-Louis Langevin

Sir Hector-Louis Langevin, politician, lawyer, journalist (born 25 August 1826 in Québec City, Lower Canada; died 11 June 1906 in Québec City). Sir Hector-Louis Langevin played an important role in Confederation, defending the position of Québec and French-speaking Canadians at the Charlottetown and Québec Conferences of 1864, and again in London in 1866. He was a trusted administrator in Sir John A. Macdonald’s governments and an ardent federalist. Langevin was one of the original architects of the residential schools system, which was designed to assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture.

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Sir John A. Macdonald

Sir John Alexander Macdonald, first prime minister of Canada (1867–73, 1878–91), lawyer, businessman, politician, (born 10 or 11 Jan 1815 in Glasgow, Scotland; died 6 June 1891 in Ottawa).