Architecture | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Airport Architecture

    A new wave of construction was inspired by the formation of the Department of Transport in 1937 and the inauguration of Trans-Canada Airlines (now Air Canada) in 1937. Dorval Airport (1940-41) near Montréal represented the new breed of airports.

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  • Article

    Architectural Competitions

    An architectural competition occurs when designs are prepared by two or more architects for the same project, on the same site, at the same time. Some competitions are open, meaning that any architect within a designated area is eligible to enter.

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  • Article

    Architectural History: 1759-1867

    At least until the 1830s, and even later in some regions, the architecture of the English regime was polarized between Georgian forms, symbolizing British imperial order, and the various regional tendencies, already established or in the process of formation throughout the territory.

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  • Article

    Architectural History: 1914-1967

     On 3 February 1916 fire broke out on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. The following morning all that remained of the Centre Block (1859) was the famous pinnacled library and a few walls of rubble. Canada was at war with Germany, its citizens in uniform, but replacement began almost immediately.

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  • Article

    Architectural History: 1967-1997

    EXPO 67 reflected to Canadians and to all participating countries the triumph of a diverse, eclectic architectural modernism.

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  • Article

    Architectural History of Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    Before the arrival of Europeans, Indigenous peoples in Canada had their own building traditions. Dwellings and structures differed vastly from nation to nation, depending on their purpose and function. Building traditions also reflected important aspects of Indigenous peoples’ respective cultures, societies, geographies, environments and spiritual beliefs. This article provides an overview of the main types of dwellings and structures used by Indigenous peoples in the Arctic, Subarctic, Northwest Coast, Plateau, Plains and Eastern Woodlands.

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  • Article

    Architectural History: the French Colonial Regime

    Architecture under the French colonial regime was characterized less by its achievements than by its unfulfilled ambitions. Caught between ideals nurtured in France during the classical period and the harsh climate of New France, architecture gradually came to reflect local resources.

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  • Article

    Architectural Practice

    The process will vary in complexity and in the length of time it takes to complete the facility. The project may be divided into a number of subprojects, but each of these will roughly follow the stages outlined above. The knowledge and expertise required at each stage also varies.

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  • Article


     A broad definition of architecture - one that calls for a balance between artistic and technical factors as well as between folk and high-art traditions - is not new.

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  • Article

    Architecture of Art Galleries in Canada

    While the Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN) lists nearly 400 art and leisure museums, Canada's major institutions are relatively few in number and often of relatively recent vintage.

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  • Article

    Bank Architecture

    Because banks competed for clients, they recognized the value of an architectural image that would attract customers. They adopted chiefly classical architectural forms which expressed wealth, integrity, endurance and confidence.

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  • Article

    Centennial Hall

    Among performers who have appeared at Centennial Hall are: Sarah McLachlan (1996), The Tragically Hip (1998), Diana Krall (2001), George Carlin (2003), Roger Whittaker (2004), k.d. Lang (2008), and Daniel Tosh (2011).

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  • Article

    Chan Centre for the Performing Arts

    Chan Centre for the Performing Arts. Performing arts complex at the University of British Columbia (UBC) campus, Vancouver.

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  • Article

    Collegiate Gothic and Other Revival Styles in 20th-Century Canadian Architecture

    From the 1880s, architects found late Gothic precedents appropriate for use in modern contexts. In Canada, an excellent example of the Collegiate Gothic style is HART HOUSE on the University of Toronto campus, one of the earliest and most comprehensive undergraduate student centres in North America.

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  • Editorial

    Gardiner Museum of Ceramic Art

    The Gardiner Museum of Ceramic Art is located in downtown Toronto. It was designed by Bruce Kuwabara and his team at KPMB Architects. Approaching the museum, one encounters an elevated cube cantilevered towards Queen’s Park. Its fritted-glass windows are set back from the building’s elegant limestone facade. The building is a dramatic extension of the modest original. The original building was a stately, two-storey neoclassical modernist structure designed by Keith Wagland. (He was one of Kuwabara’s professors at the University of Toronto.) It was completed in 1984.

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