Science & Technology | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Editorial

    Norman Bethune: Greatest Canadian?

    The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated.

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  • Article

    Octavia Grace Ritchie

    Octavia Grace Ritchie, married name England, physician, educator (b at Montréal 16 Jan 1868; d there 1 Feb 1948). Though a brilliant student, she was at first refused admission to McGill, but Principal Sir J.W. DAWSON relented when Donald A. SMITH provided $50,000 for women's education there.

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  • Article

    Olivia Poole

    Susan Olivia Davis Poole, inventor (born 18 April 1889 in Devils Lake, North Dakota; died 10 October 1975 in Ganges, BC). Olivia Poole was raised on the Ojibwe White Earth Reservation in Minnesota. There, she was inspired by the traditional practice of using a bouncing cradleboard to soothe babies. In 1957, she patented her invention of the baby jumper, under the name Jolly Jumper, making her one of the first Indigenous women in Canada to patent and profit from an invention.

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  • Article

    Omond McKillop Solandt

    Omond McKillop Solandt, research director (b at Winnipeg, Man 2 Sept 1909; d at Alliston, Ont 12 May 1993). He studied at Toronto and began a research career in physiology under C.H. BEST before winning a scholarship to England for advanced training in 1939.

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  • Article

    Onye Nnorom

    Onyenyechukwu (Onye) Nnorom, family physician, specialist in public health and preventive medicine (born 27 February 1981 in Montreal, Quebec). Nnorom is the associate director of the residency program in public health and preventive medicine at the University of Toronto’s Dalla Lana School of Public Health. She also leads the Black health curriculum at the university’s medical school. Her work addresses the health inequities that racialized and immigrant communities face.

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  • Article


    Oronhyatekha (pronounced O-RON-ya-day-ga, meaning "Burning Sky" or “Burning Cloud”), also known as Peter Martin, a Kanyen'kehà:ka (Mohawk) medical doctor and businessman (born 10 August 1841 on the Six Nations of the Grand River reserve near Brantford, Canada West [now Ontario]; died 3 March 1907 in Savannah, Georgia, US). In 1867, Oronhyatekha became the second Indigenous person in Canada to earn a medical degree. Passionate about Indigenous issues, he was elected to the Grand General Indian Council of Ontario and Quebec in 1872, where he fought against the restrictive measures of the Indian Act. Oronhyatekha was also a businessman and, in 1881, headed the Independent Order of Foresters.

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  • Article

    Otto Julius Klotz

    Otto Julius Klotz, astronomer (b at Preston, Canada W 31 Mar 1852; d at Ottawa 28 Dec 1923). With W.F. KING and E.G. DEVILLE, Klotz was responsible for the formation of the astronomical branch of the Department of the Interior, and for the building of the Cliff Street Observatory in 1890.

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  • Article

    Otto Maass

    Otto Maass, educator, scientist (b at New York C, NY 8 July 1890; d at Montréal 3 July 1961). Maass was educated at McGill and Harvard (PhD 1919). In 1920 he joined McGill's staff and in 1923 became Macdonald Professor of Chemistry there, a position he retained until 1955.

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  • Article

    Otto Neumann Sverdrup

    Otto Neumann Sverdrup, arctic explorer (b at Bindal, Norway 31 Oct 1854; d at Oslo 26 Nov 1930). An experienced sailor and outdoorsman, he was introduced to arctic travel by Fridtjof Nansen, who invited him in 1888 to ski across

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  • Article

    Owen Beverly Beattie

    Owen Beverly Beattie, anthropologist, professor (b at Victoria, BC 3 June 1949). A professor of anthropology at the University of Alberta, Beattie gained international attention in 1984 for his investigation of the 1845 Franklin expedition disaster.

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  • Article

    William Arthur Parks

    William Arthur Parks, geologist, palaeontologist, teacher (b at Hamilton, Ont 11 Dec 1868; d at Toronto 3 Oct 1936). A graduate of University of Toronto (BA, 1892; PhD, 1900), he joined its staff in 1893 and became professor and head of the geology department in 1922.

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  • Article

    Patrick Alan Morrow

    Patrick Alan Morrow, photographer, mountaineer (b at Invermere, BC 18 Oct 1952). His abilities as an adventure photographer led to a position on the 1982 Canadian MOUNT EVEREST EXPEDITION, and on October 7 of that year he became

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  • Article

    Patrick Duncan McTaggart-Cowan

    Patrick Duncan McTaggart-Cowan, meteorologist (b at Edinburgh, Scot 31 May 1912; d at Bracebridge, Ont 11 Oct 1997), younger brother of Ian MCTAGGART-COWAN. McTaggart-Cowan's family immigrated to Canada in 1913; he graduated from the University of British Columbia and was a Rhodes scholar at Oxford.

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  • Article

    Paul David

    Pierre Paul David, CC, OQ, cardiologist and senator (born 25 December 1919 in Montreal, QC; died 5 April 1999 in Montreal). Dr. David founded the Montreal Heart Institute in 1954 and is regarded as the father of cardiology in Quebec.

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  • Article

    Paul H.T. Thorlakson

    Paul H.T. Thorlakson, surgeon (b at Park River, N Dak 5 Oct 1895; d at Winnipeg, Man 19 Oct 1989). In 1900 the Thorlakson family moved to Selkirk, Man, and in 1919 Thorlakson graduated in medicine from Manitoba Medical College.

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