Science & Technology | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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Displaying 61-75 of 663 results
  • Article

    Bertram Neville Brockhouse

    Bertram Neville Brockhouse, CC, FRSC, FRS, physicist (born 15 July 1918 in Lethbridge, AB; died 13 October 2003 in Hamilton, ON). Brockhouse pioneered the use of thermal neutrons to study structural, dynamical and magnetic aspects of the behaviour of condensed matter systems at an atomic level (see Physics; Spectroscopy). In 1994, he and the American physicist, Clifford G. Shull were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (see Nobel Prizes and Canada).

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  • Article

    Biruté Galdikas

    Biruté Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC, primatologist, conservationist, educator (born 10 May 1946 in Wiesbaden, Germany). Galdikas is the world’s leading authority on orangutans. She has studied them in Indonesian Borneo since 1971. She is also involved in conservation and rehabilitation efforts for orangutans. Galdikas forms part of a trio of primatologists nicknamed the “Trimates,” along with Jane Goodall and Dian Fossey. Galdikas spends part of the year in Indonesia and teaches half time at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver.

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  • Article

    Bjarni Tryggvason

    Bjarni Valdimar Tryggvason, engineer, pilot, astronaut, scientist, educator (born 21 September 1945 in Reykjavik, Iceland; died 5 April 2022 in London, ON). Bjarni Tryggvason was one of the original six Canadian astronauts selected by the National Research Council in 1983. (See also Canadian Space Agency.) In 1997, he participated in the STS-85 mission and flew aboard NASA’s Discovery space shuttle. He was an associate member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots and the recipient of numerous awards and honours throughout his career.

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  • Article

    Bonnie Henry

    Bonnie Henry, provincial health officer of British Columbia (2018 to present), epidemiologist, physician (born 1965 in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island). Dr. Bonnie Henry is best known for leading British Columbia’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. She has also worked to eradicate polio and to contain Ebola and SARS. Henry is a family care physician and a specialist in preventative medicine. She is the first woman to serve as BC’s provincial health officer. Click here for definitions of key terms used in this article.

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  • Article

    Boris Peter Stoicheff

    Boris Peter Stoicheff, physics professor (b at Bitola, Yugoslavia 1 June 1924). A specialist in spectroscopy, laser physics and nonlinear optics, he is known for his innovative use of lasers. After receiving a PhD from U of T in 1950 he joined the National Research Council of Canada in 1951.

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  • Article

    Boucar Diouf

    Boucar Diouf, CQ, scientist, teacher, writer, poet, storyteller, comedian and columnist (born 26 May 1965 in Fatick, Senegal). Diouf is beloved for his inspired, sincere and relatable outlook. In his books and monologues, Diouf explores the themes of immigration and integration into Quebec society. As an educator, Diouf manages to defuse controversial subjects by using humour and shining a philosophical light on them.

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  • Article

    Brenda Milner

    Brenda Atkinson Milner (née Langford), CC, GOQ, FRSC, FRS, neuropsychologist (born 15 July 1918 in Manchester, England). Dr. Milner pioneered the field of neuropsychology, combining neurology and psychology. Most notably, she discovered that the part of the brain called the medial temporal lobe (which includes the hippocampus) is critical for the forming of long-term memories. Milner’s later work revealed that the learning of skills involving the combination of vision and movement is not part of the medial temporal lobe system. These discoveries proved that there are different forms of memory in different brain regions. Through her observation of patients, Milner changed forever our understanding of the brain’s learning and memory mechanisms. Click here for definitions of key terms used in this article.

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  • Article

    Brian Evans Conway

    Brian Evans Conway, chemistry professor (b at Farnborough, Eng 26 Jan 1927). After obtaining his doctorate from the University of London in 1949, Conway worked as a research associate at the Chester Beatty Cancer Research Institute in London.

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  • Article

    Bristow Guy Ballard

    Bristow Guy Ballard, research engineer (b at Fort Stewart, Ont 19 June 1902; d at Ottawa 22 Sept 1975). Ballard was educated at Queen's and worked for 5 years on Westinghouse high-speed electric locomotives before joining the National Research Council staff in 1930.

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  • Article

    Brock Chisholm

    George Brock Chisholm, CC, CBE, ED, psychiatrist, medical administrator, soldier (born 18 May 1896 in Oakville, ON; died 4 February 1971 in Victoria, BC). Brock Chisholm earned  honours for courageous service in the First World War, including a Military Cross (MC) and Bar. He obtained his MD from the University of Toronto in 1924 and became an influential psychiatrist following training at Yale University. He introduced mental health as a component of the recruitment and management of the Canadian Army during the Second World War. He directed the army’s medical services, served in the federal government as deputy minister of health, and became the founding director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO). His vocal attacks on methods of indoctrinating children with societal myths made him a controversial public figure. He was an often provocative advocate of world peace and mental health.

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  • Article

    Bruce Graham Trigger

    Bruce Graham Trigger, anthropologist, archaeologist (born 18 June 1937 in Preston, ON; died 1 December 2006 in Montréal, QC).

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  • Article

    Calvin Carl Gotlieb

    Calvin Carl Gotlieb, "Kelly," computer scientist, university professor (b at Toronto 27 Mar 1921). A pioneer in the computer industry, Gotlieb received a PhD in physics from the University of Toronto in 1947.

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  • Collection

    Canada During COVID-19

    Countries, communities, and individuals around the world are grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic. How will historians remember this time in history? Canada During COVID-19: A Living Archive is meant to capture the experiences of everyday Canadians as they live through this challenging time.

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  • Macleans

    Canada's Astronomers Doing Stellar Research

    CANADIANS ARE masters of the universe. Just look at the numbers. Sure, the U.S. leads the world in spending on space research, laying out roughly US$7 per American each year, while Britain, France and Germany budget between US$4 and US$5 for every citizen.This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on September 5, 2005

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  • Article

    Canada’s Walk of Fame

    Canada’s Walk of Fame is a non-profit organization dedicated to honouring Canadians who have achieved excellence in the fields of arts and entertainment, science and technology, business, philanthropy, and athletics. Modelled after the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it stretches along 13 city blocks in Toronto’s Entertainment District. Each inductee’s name and signature are etched onto a plaque embedded on the sidewalk, along with a star resembling a maple leaf. Inductees are honoured at an annual, nationally broadcast gala in Toronto. More than 210 people have been inducted since the Walk was founded in 1998.

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