Provinces & Territories | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Intergenerational Trauma and Residential Schools

    Historical trauma occurs when trauma caused by historical oppression is passed down through generations. For more than 100 years, the Canadian government supported residential school programs that isolated Indigenous children from their families and communities (see Residential Schools in Canada). Under the guise of educating and preparing Indigenous children for their participation in Canadian society, the federal government and other administrators of the residential school system committed what has since been described as an act of cultural genocide. As generations of students left these institutions, they returned to their home communities without the knowledge, skills or tools to cope in either world. The impacts of their institutionalization in residential school continue to be felt by subsequent generations. This is called intergenerational trauma.

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    https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/images/tce_placeholder.jpg?v=e9dca980c9bdb3aa11e832e7ea94f5d9 Intergenerational Trauma and Residential Schools
  • Article

    Inuit Experiences at Residential School

    Residential schools were government-sponsored religious schools created to assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture. Schools in the North were run by missionaries for nearly a century before the federal government began to open new, so-called modern institutions in the 1950s. This was less than a decade after a Special Joint Committee (see Indigenous Suffrage) found that the system was ineffectual. The committee’s recommendations led to the eventual closure of residential schools across the country.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/InuitResidentialSchool/Inuit-Residenital-School (Library and Archives Canada_PA-042133).jpg Inuit Experiences at Residential School
  • Article

    Labrador

     The Torngat Mts of the far north rise in splendid isolation - the highest peaks east of the Rockies. Though in the same latitude as the British Isles, Labrador's forbidding terrain and extreme climate support only sparse settlement.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/697bba1d-7d03-4ef3-aa0b-5ac5d05a02bc.jpg Labrador
  • Article

    Lillian Elias

    Lillian Elias (whose Inuvialuktun name is Panigavluk), ONWT, teacher, language activist (born 1943 in the Mackenzie Delta, NT). Influenced by her time at residential school, where administrators attempted to forcefully strip her of her language and culture, Lillian Elias has spent much of her life promoting and preserving her first language, Inuvialuktun (see Inuvialuit).

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/LillianElias/Lillian Elias_Screencap.jpg Lillian Elias
  • Article

    Lower Canada

    Lower Canada was a British colony from 1791 to 1840. Its geographical boundaries comprised the southern portion of present-day Quebec. In 1791, Britain divided the Province of Quebec into Upper Canada and Lower Canada. (See: Constitutional Act 1791.) Britain had followed a similar policy of territorial division twice before. Prince Edward Island was detached from Nova Scotia in 1769. The provinces of Cape Breton and New Brunswick were created in 1784 in response to the wave of Loyalist immigration (which also occurred in Quebec). In 1841, Upper Canada and Lower Canada were renamed Canada West and Canada East, respectively. They were united as the single colony of the Province of Canada.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/0a40188b-4ef4-4e9e-90bb-ec21d39c1c45.jpg Lower Canada
  • Article

    Maisie Hurley

    Maisie Hurley, née Maisie Amy Campbell-Johnston, Vancouver-area political activist, Indigenous ally (see Indigenous Peoples in Canada), newspaper founder and art collector (born 27 November 1887 in Swansea, Wales; died 3 October 1964 in North Vancouver, British Columbia). Although Hurley had no formal legal training or law degree (see Legal Education), she worked on several legal cases and advocated for Indigenous peoples’ basic human rights as well as for changes to the Indian Act. In 1946, Hurley started a newspaper called The Native Voice that aimed to bring attention to important issues concerning Indigenous communities across Canada (see Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Canada). In 2011, Hurley’s collection of Indigenous art was displayed at the North Vancouver Museum.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/Untitled-11.jpg Maisie Hurley
  • Article

    Manitoba

    Manitoba is a Canadian province located at the centre of the country, bounded by Saskatchewan to the west, Hudson Bay and Ontario to the east, Nunavut to the north, and North Dakota and Minnesota to the south. The province was founded on parts of the traditional territories of the Cree, Anishinaabe, Oji-Cree, Dakota/Lakota (Sioux) and Dene peoples, and on the homeland of the Métis Nation. The land is now governed treaties 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10. As of the 2016 census, Manitoba had 1,278,365 residents, making it the fifth most populous province or territory in Canada. Manitoba joined Confederation in 1870, and its capital city, Winnipeg, was incorporated shortly thereafter, in 1873.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/05379a18-2309-44ac-a09c-17602a71a3da.jpg Manitoba
  • Timelines

    Manitoba

    Sometimes referred to as the “keystone” province because of its position in the centre of the country, Manitoba is bounded by Nunavut and Hudson Bay to the north, Ontario to the east, the United States to the south and Saskatchewan to the west.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/631b3ba1-7b69-4d3b-9c8f-68ec97fdfdfb.jpg Manitoba
  • Article

    Maritime Provinces

    The word Maritimes is a regional designation for the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. These provinces constitute a cluster of peninsulas and islands that form the northeastern extension of the Appalachian Highlands and are also significantly affected by the Atlantic Ocean. Together, the Maritime provinces cover 133,850 km2 — or just a little more than 1 per cent of Canada's land surface.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/276c48ba-ecfb-4c4a-aec6-e7bba279abf9.jpg Maritime Provinces
  • Article

    Métis Experiences at Residential School

    Although the first residential schools in Canada were established with the intention of assimilating First Nations children into Euro-Canadian culture, Métis and Inuit children were also institutionalized in such facilities. Métis children experienced similar day-to-day conditions to those of other students in residential schools, but they were often considered “outsiders” by their peers and administrators. This perception affected their experiences within these institutions in particular ways.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/MetisExperiences/Webp.net-resizeimage.jpg Métis Experiences at Residential School
  • Article

    Native People's Caravan

    The Native People’s Caravan was a cross-country mobile protest that took place in 1974. Its main purpose was to raise awareness about the poor living conditions and discrimination experienced by Indigenous peoples in Canada. It travelled from Vancouver to Ottawa, where the subsequent occupation of a vacant warehouse on Victoria Island, near Parliament Hill, extended into 1975. The caravan brought various Indigenous groups together in protest of broken treaties, as well as a lack of government-supported education, housing and health care. As a result, meetings between Cabinet ministers and Indigenous leaders became more frequent. The protest is remembered as an important turning point in Indigenous activism in Canada.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/e9e4a925-a033-404d-9819-a3bb46fe9c8e.jpg Native People's Caravan
  • Article

    New Brunswick

    New Brunswick is one of three provinces collectively known as the "Maritimes." Joined to Nova Scotia by the narrow Chignecto Isthmus and separated from Prince Edward Island by the Northumberland Strait, New Brunswick forms the land bridge linking this region to continental North America. It is bounded in the north by Quebec and in the west by the US (Maine). In 1784, the British divided Nova Scotia at the Chignecto Isthmus, naming the west and north portion New Brunswick after the German duchy of Brunswick-Lunenburg. New Brunswick is now the only officially bilingual province in Canada.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/0ad6e160-c61e-4c22-b4ad-5db332fb3e11.jpg New Brunswick
  • Timelines

    New Brunswick

    New Brunswick is one of three provinces collectively known as the "Maritimes." Joined to Nova Scotia by the narrow Chignecto Isthmus and separated from Prince Edward Island by the Northumberland Strait, New Brunswick forms the land bridge linking this region to continental North America.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/06045521-0423-40e4-bb35-b6789d7556cf.jpg New Brunswick
  • Article

    New Brunswick and Confederation

    New Brunswick became one of the founding members of the Dominion of Canada on 1 July 1867 when it joined Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec in Confederation. Arthur Hamilton Gordon, the lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, helped organize the Charlottetown Conference (1–9 September 1864), where a federal union of British North American colonies was first discussed. By 1865, however, a majority in the New Brunswick legislature had swung against it. Albert Smith defeated pro-Confederation premier Samuel Tilley in a snap election that year. But the Fenian Raids in 1866 fueled New Brunswick’s sense of insecurity and increased support for Confederation. After Tilley’s party won another election in 1866, the legislature voted 38–1 in favour of Confederation.

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/bb8000df-c2b6-4d69-821d-db39907e5078.jpg New Brunswick and Confederation
  • Timelines

    Newfoundland and Labrador

    Newfoundland, the youngest of the Canadian provinces, joined Confederation in 1949. Some portion of its coast was undoubtedly one of the first parts of the continent seen by Europeans. Its total area is 405, 720 km2, of which Labrador makes up almost three-quarters (294,330 km2).

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    https://d3d0lqu00lnqvz.cloudfront.net/media/media/53e7a7d6-7939-4450-81d0-3d467d000af0.jpg Newfoundland and Labrador