Education | The Canadian Encyclopedia

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  • Article

    Higher Education

    Higher education usually refers to education and training in universities, colleges and institutes of technology or art. It also refers to an academic field of studies, which has been advanced in Canada since 1969 with the establishment of a graduate unit at the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO.

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    Historical Sources

    Historians use written, oral and visual sources to develop and support their interpretations of historical events. The historical discipline divides source materials into two categories: primary sources and secondary sources. Both categories are flexible and depend on the subject and era a historian is investigating. 

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    Historical Thinking Concepts

    The six “Historical Thinking Concepts” were developed by The Historical Thinking Project, which was led by Dr. Peter Seixas of the University of British Columbia and educational expert Jill Colyer. The project identified six key concepts: historical significance, primary source evidence, continuity and change, cause and consequence, historical perspectives and ethical dimensions. Together, these concepts form the basis of historical inquiry. The project was funded by the Department of Canadian Heritage and The History Education Network (THEN/HiER). Seixas and Tom Morton published a book, The Big Six: Historical Thinking Concepts, that expanded on these concepts.

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    History of Education in Canada

    The Canadian insistence on the collective concerns of peace, order and good government has meant that state projects such as schooling are seen in terms of their overall impact on society.

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    Indian Day Schools in Canada

    Indian Day Schools were racially segregated educational institutions that operated in Canada from the late 19th century until 2000 (see Racial Segregation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada). These schools were intended to assimilate Indigenous children into mainstream Canadian society by eradicating their cultural practices, languages and traditions. More than 150,000 Indigenous students attended these institutions. The Indian Day School system was closely linked to the larger residential school system. However, there are important distinctions between the two, namely that students were educated in their own communities and returned home to their families at the end of each day. In 2019, a significant milestone was reached with a $1.47 billion class action settlement involving approximately 200,000 survivors. However, criticisms of the settlement process persist. Survivors have led efforts to support language revitalization, healing initiatives, commemoration efforts and truth-telling projects. Their efforts acknowledge the need for reconciliation and addressing the historical injustices inflicted upon Indigenous communities.

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    Intergenerational Trauma and Residential Schools

    Historical trauma occurs when trauma caused by historical oppression is passed down through generations. For more than 100 years, the Canadian government supported residential school programs that isolated Indigenous children from their families and communities (see Residential Schools in Canada). Under the guise of educating and preparing Indigenous children for their participation in Canadian society, the federal government and other administrators of the residential school system committed what has since been described as an act of cultural genocide. As generations of students left these institutions, they returned to their home communities without the knowledge, skills or tools to cope in either world. The impacts of their institutionalization in residential school continue to be felt by subsequent generations. This is called intergenerational trauma. This is the full-length entry about Intergenerational Trauma and Residential Schools. For a plain-language summary, please see Intergenerational Trauma and Residential Schools (Plain-Language Summary).

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    Jean Lyons School of Music

    Jean Lyons School of Music. Teaching academy in piano and theory, established in Vancouver in 1963 by the pianist and teacher Jean Lyons.

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    Kelly Kirby Piano Method

    Kelly Kirby Piano Method. Also known as the Kelly Kirby Kindergarten Method and the Kelly Kirby Introductory Piano Program, this method is a system of teaching piano, musical rudiments, and theory to young beginners ages 3 to 5.

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    Khaki University

    Khaki University (initially Khaki College), an educational institution set up and managed by the Canadian Army in Britain, 1917-19 and 1945-46. The program was rooted in the study groups of the Canadian YMCA and the chaplain services of the Canadian Army.

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    Kindergarten, conceived by Friedrich Froebel in 19th-century Germany, refers to a program of education of 4- and 5-year-old children.

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    Lakehead University

    Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ont, was founded in 1965. Its roots date back to 1946 when Lakehead Technical Institute was established. The name was changed to Lakehead College of Arts, Science and Technology in 1956, and in 1957 the city of Port Arthur donated the land for a new college campus.

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    Laurentian Thesis

     Laurentian Thesis, an influential theory of economic and national development set forth by several major English Canadian historians from the 1930s through the 1950s.

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    Laurentian University

    Laurentian University, in Greater Sudbury, Ont, was founded in 1960; instruction is in both French and English. Laurentian University dates from 1913 when the Roman Catholic Collège du Sacré-Coeur was established in Sudbury. In 1957 it became the University of Sudbury.

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    Legal Education

    Because all provinces but Québec inherited the English COMMON LAW, legal education in Canada - training for the practice of law - was in the beginning modelled on that in England. In England, however, the profession was and is divided into 2 mutually exclusive branches - BARRISTERS and SOLICITORS.

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    Les insolences du Frère Untel

    Les insolences du Frère Untel is a collection of pamphleteering texts written in 1960 by Jean-Paul Desbiens (Brother Pierre-Jérôme). The publication criticized the state of culture and education in Quebec at the time. It examined the education system and the omnipresence of the clergy in the public sphere. The book proposed a major political and societal overhaul. It sparked great debate in French-Canadian society. (See also Quiet Revolution.) It provided a framework for a major reform of Quebec’s education system. Les insolences du Frère Untel became Quebec’s number one literary bestseller, selling over 100,000 copies in just a few months.

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